Are the Bibles in Our Possession Inspired? (IBRI Research Reports Book 5)

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This same papyrus published by Hayes will give us much information on this aspect of the life of Joseph. Bibliography Aling, C. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House. Joseph in Egypt Third of Six Parts By Charles Aling As all who are familiar with the Biblical account will remember, Joseph, while still in the household of Potiphar, was falsely accused of adultery with the wife of his master and thrown into prison.

The normal punishment for adultery in ancient Egypt was death; the fact that Joseph did not suffer execution is interesting and perhaps indicates that Potiphar doubted the veracity of his wife, who had made the accusation. In any case, Joseph spent time in an Egyptian prison.

The Biblical mention of Joseph serving time in a prison is noteworthy in itself. To us in the 20th century, serving time in a prison as punishment for a crime seems quite natural. But in the ancient world, this was not the case. The death penalty, a fine, or even bodily mutilation were the usual means of making people suffer for their crimes in the ancient Near East.

Prisons were rare in the ancient world. To see this, one need only look at the Old Testament Law. There is nothing there about serving a prison sentence for any sin or crime, and in fact there is nothing Biblically or archaeologically that would lead us to believe that the Hebrews even had prisons as we know them. The importance, then, of the prison sentence of Joseph is that the author of the book of Genesis is recording correct information, for Egypt was one of the few nations in the ancient Near East that had prisons in the classical sense of the term.

We are very fortunate to have an Egyptian papyrus, translated and published by the Egyptologist W. Hayes, that deals at length with Egyptian prisons Hayes We have mentioned it also deals with Asiatic slaves in Middle Kingdom Egypt. Let us look at what this papyrus tells us about prisons and prison life in Egypt in the days of Joseph Hayes The main prison of Egypt was called the "Place of Confinement. What kinds of sentences were given to prisoners? We know little about specific sentencing procedures.

It does not seem that criminals were given a number of years to serve in prison. Perhaps all sentences were life sentences. In any case, some of the prisoners in the Place of Confinement were "serving time" for their crimes, as Joseph presumably was. Other 99a 20 Aling: Joseph in Egypt: Pt 3 99b prisoners, however, were simply being held in prison awaiting the decision of the government as to what their punishment was to be. In other words, they were waiting to find out if they were going to be executed. This last category seems to be that of the two individuals Joseph met while in prison, the Butler and the Baker.

Who were the two individuals? We are never told their names or their crimes. The fact that one,of them, the Baker, was eventually executed, and the other, the Butler, was restored to office, leads us to believe that they were accused of being involved in some kind of plot against the king.

Such things happened in ancient Egypt. In such a case, once the king sorted out the facts, the guilty would be punished and the 21 Bible and Spade The Baker was executed for treason and the Butler was restored to his position. But what was that position? We get the term "butler" from the KJV translation of the Bible, and it brings to our minds the very British concept of a man in a tuxedo who answers doorbells and supervises household servants.

This does not reflect the situation in the Joseph story. The duties of this personage involved providing beverages to the king; hence we see the importance of having someone trustworthy on the job. Getting back to the prison itself, let us see what else the Hayes papyrus tells us about it. The main prison was located at Thebes modern Luxor in Upper Egypt, some mi south of the Nile delta and modern Cairo.

Assuming Joseph was there and not at some smaller prison a correct assumption I believe since key royal officials were imprisoned there too , we see that the entire Joseph story cannot be confined to the delta area of the Nile as some scholars would have us believe. As the Genesis account states, there was a "Warden" or "Overseer of the Prison," who was assisted by a large staff of clerks and scribes. Record keeping at such an institution was as important to the ancient Egyptians as it is in a modern prison.

The actual title Overseer of the Prison is not commonly found in Egyptian inscriptions, but examples do exist from the Middle Kingdom, the time of Joseph. One of the chief assistants to the Warden or Overseer was the "Scribe of the Prison. Since Joseph was literate, as we have seen from the fact that he served as steward in the household of Potiphar, it seems probable that he was promoted to Scribe of the Prison. As such, he would not only have been the right-hand man of the Warden, but he also would have been in charge of all the records of the institution. No matter how high in rank he became, Joseph naturally would have valued his personal freedom more than a high office in the prison.

When he interpreted the dream of the Cup Bearer as meaning that the Cup Bearer would be freed and restored to his post, Joseph implored that individual to remember him when he has the ear of Pharaoh. The Cup Bearer promises to do so, but quickly forgets Joseph when he assumes his old position again.

It is only when Pharaoh himself dreams a dream that the Cup Bearer remembers the young Hebrew who could, through the power of God, interpret dreams. At that time, Joseph is called out of prison. One final point needs to be noted. Joseph, before going to the king, has to change his clothing and shave Gn These are significant details. Native Egyptians were very concerned about personal cleanliness and the removal of all facial hair—the beards worn by kings were false beards.

If Joseph appeared before a Hyksos, i. It is likely 22 Aling: Joseph in Egypt: Pt 3 that the ancient Hyksos were Amorites, and we have ancient pieces of art indicating that the Amorites grew beards. This verse, therefore, is further evidence that the Pharaoh of Joseph's day was Egyptian and not Hyksos, and that Joseph is correctly dated to the Middle Kingdom period.

In our next article we will examine Joseph's encounter with Pharaoh, a real turning point in the career of the Biblical Patriarch. Bibliography Hayes, W C, ed Vergote, J. Louvain: Publications Universitaires. This material is cited with gracious permission from: Bible and Spade and Dr. As we saw in our last article, he had been prepared for this encounter by being cleaned up and shaved, in true Egyptian fashion.

He was now ready to meet the most powerful and important man on earth. Before we consider this meeting however, a word on the title Pharaoh is necessary. This term means literally "Great House," and refers to the palace establishment of Egypt. As the years passed, the title "Pharaoh" began to be used when speaking of the king, the main inhabitant of the palace and the head of Egypt's government. If we date Joseph to the Middle Kingdom period of Egyptian history, as I believe it is correct to do, an apparent problem arises.

At this early stage of Egyptian history, the title Pharaoh was not used to refer to the king in direct address; such use begins only in Egypt's powerful 18th Dynasty in about BC, some years after the time of Joseph. We must remember, however, that Joseph did not write the account we have in Genesis; Moses did. Moses of course lived much later than Joseph, in about BC.

During his time, the title Pharaoh was beginning to be used as a form of direct address for the king of Egypt. It is important to note that Moses does not use Pharaoh followed by a proper name. This practice was only instituted in the late period of Egyptian history, as is correctly reflected in Jeremiah , where "Pharaoh Hophra" is mentioned.

But let us turn to the events surrounding the actual meeting between Joseph and the king, most probably Sesostris II of Dynasty As all of us will recall from our own study of the 10 24 Aling: Joseph in Egypt: Pt 4 11 Scriptures, Pharaoh had had a dream. His magicians the Hebrew in Genesis 41 is an accurate translation of the Egyptian word for a magician could not tell the meaning of his dream.

At this point, the Butler Cupbearer remembered his friend Joseph from prison days who had interpreted his dream and that of the Baker. Joseph's interpretation of their dreams had come true. This was the man to send to the king to interpret his dream. Pharaoh's dream, itself full of Egyptian coloring, predicted according to Joseph's interpretation that Egypt would experience seven years of plenty followed by seven years of famine. The years of plenty would of course cause no problem; but in a country dependent on agriculture, seven years of famine could spell disaster.

The Pharaoh is then offered sage advice by Joseph: find a man to supervise Egypt's produce during the seven good years. He should put aside one fifth of the produce of the seven good years for distribution during the seven bad years. In Genesis , two remarkable things take place.

First, Pharaoh acknowledges that God singular has revealed all this to Joseph. He must have been told this fact by Joseph himself. It is interesting that this man of God was not afraid to give credit to the Lord even while speaking to a pagan king who was considered to be a god on earth by his people. This shows solid faith and remarkable courage on the part of Joseph. Second, Pharaoh realizes that Joseph has the Lord's wisdom and appoints him to be the one in charge of Egypt's agricultural production during these important years.

After all of this takes place, a very significant scene is described. In Genesis , Joseph is appointed to high office in Egypt and is given several rewards—a ring, a gold chain, new linen robes, a chariot, an Egyptian name, and a wife. The interpretation of this scene has created a good deal of controversy among scholars.

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Traditionally, the entire scene has been taken to represent some kind of investiture ceremony. Joseph is named to high position, and is given the trappings of high office. Little remains at On called Heliopolis by the Greeks except for this lone obelisk. A grand temple to the Egyptian god Re stood here in Joseph's day. The Egyptologist Donald B. Redford in his study of the Joseph story examined all known scenes in Egyptian tomb paintings where individuals are given gold chains Redford If. In the 32 known paintings of this event, not one has anything to do with induction into high office. They all, on the other hand, show an individual being rewarded for service rendered.

Redford uses this information to deny the accuracy of the Biblical account. We do not agree with him on that point, though. What is happening in these verses is a two-fold ceremony. In verses , Pharaoh officially appoints Joseph to high office in Egypt in our next article, we will try to establish exactly which Egyptian titles Joseph held. However, in verses , Pharaoh rewards Joseph for what he has revealed. Let us look at how Joseph was rewarded. Of the three items of personal adornment mentioned, the gold chain is by far the most important.

As Redford has pointed out, this is a common item in reward scenes in Egyptian tomb paintings most of the examples come from the New Kingdom period, somewhat later than the days of Joseph. While the ring and the linen robes are not prominently mentioned in Egyptian reward scenes, the gold chain catches our attention because one would not expect an Egyptian reward ceremony to occur without it. This again indicates the accurate Egyptian nature of the details of the Joseph Story. Joseph's new chariot is also of special interest Aling As a vehicle for war, the chariot seems to have only been introduced into Egypt during the Hyksos period, BC.

This would be, according to the dates calculated from the Bible itself, too late for Joseph. There is, however, nothing strange about the Egyptians having a few chariots for high officials to use in the Middle Kingdom period when Joseph lived. In this passage of Scripture we are not looking at war chariots lined up for battle in some anachronistic way. In fact, the implication of the Biblical text is that there- were not many chariots in Egypt at this time.

Joseph's chariot is called "the second chariot," implying that the only person who outranked him, Pharaoh himself, had the other. What of Joseph's new name? Unfortunately, scholars are uncertain about the Egyptian original for the Hebrew version Zaphnath-paaneah Kitchen ; Redford, Identification of the Egyptian name of Joseph would be of great interest, since some of the viziers of the Middle Kingdom period are known to us.

Our small sample of names, though, probably does not include Joseph's. The woman's name was Asenath, which is a good Egyptian female name of the period. We know little of her, other than her name and the name of her father. Knowing Joseph, however, we must assume that he taught her to have faith in the true God of Heaven, despite her pagan background. But who was her father?

The Bible gives us several tantalizing facts about the man. He is called Potiphera.


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This is a variant of the name Potiphar, the only other male named in the Joseph Story. As we all recall, Potiphar was Joseph's former master. In both cases it is likely that we are not dealing with a personal name at all. Such a grammatical construction of a name, meaning "the [graphic] Pharaoh had Joseph "ride in a chariot as his second-in-command, and men shouted before him, "Make way! Golden state chariot from the tomb of Tutankhamun, ca. It would also be strange to have two men named who have virtually the same name, while none of the kings is named.

It seems most likely that the two men involved are not actually being referred to by name, but that we are being told that they were native Egyptians. We are also told that the father of Asenath was a priest. This in itself is not terribly significant, other than to show that Joseph was being highly favored since priests were at the pinnacle of Egyptian society. What is important is the further information we are given in Genesis Asenath's father was Priest of the city of On. On was known to the Greeks as Heliopolis, and was the center of worship of the sun god Re.

It was also the educational center of ancient Egypt. The High Priest of the god Re at that city was a key figure in Egyptian religion and politics. That Joseph married the daughter of a priest of Re at Heliopolis is important as confirmation of our date for Joseph in the Middle Kingdom and not in the Hyksos period as so many scholars wish to do.

His marriage must be regarded as a high honor, as it is part of the rewards given him for what he has done. It thus stands to reason that the priest of On and his god Re were highly favored by the Pharaoh at that time. Under the Hyksos, the god Re, while not being persecuted as was once thought by some scholars, was certainly not the main god: For the Hyksos the god Set, a Nile delta deity often equated with the Canaanite god Baal, was number one.

If Joseph dates to the Hyksos period, we would not expect to find Re being so important. That Joseph marries a daughter of the Priest of Re is evidence for his belonging to a period of history when native Egyptian kings ruled in Egypt, not Hyksos foreigners. In our next article, we will examine the titles Joseph held in the Egyptian government. Bibliography Aling, Charles F. Grand Rapids MI: Baker. Kitchen, Kenneth A. Redford, Donald B. Leiden, The Netherlands: E. Joseph's father-in-law was a priest at this temple and Joseph's marriage to his daughter no doubt had political ramifications.

The key verse is Genesis , which mentions three titles held by Joseph. The Hebrew text of course does not give the Egyptian form of these three titles. Hence, years of scholarly debate have arisen over the exact Egyptian renditions of the Hebrew words or phrases. Of the three titles that Joseph held, let us begin with the one obvious title, and then move on to the two more complex and problematical titles. This title has an exact Egyptian counterpart, which is normally translated into English as "Chief Steward of the King. This fits well with Joseph's advice regarding the coming years of plenty and the following years of famine.

As Chief Steward, Joseph would be well placed to prepare for the coming famine during the years of more abundant production.

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It is interesting to observe that another specific responsibility of the Chief Steward was to take charge of the royal granaries, where the agricultural wealth of the nation was stored. As the person in charge of these great storehouses, Joseph was ideally placed for carrying out his suggestion to store food during the good years for the bad.

On the practical side, two things can be learned from Joseph's post as Chief Steward. First, note how God had prepared him for his task. No one starts out in life at the top of the ladder. We all must learn the ropes, so to speak, from the ground floor up. Joseph had been steward of the estates of Potiphar. This job was very much like that of Chief Steward of the King, but on a much smaller scale. Joseph without doubt received 58 30 Aling: Joseph in Egypt: Pt 5 58b on-the-job training as Potiphar's steward, which stood him in good stead when he later was promoted to the same job in the King's household.

As Potiphar's steward, Joseph did his job faithfully. We are told that all that Potiphar owned prospered under the stewardship of Joseph. Joseph evidently learned well. He was therefore 31 59 Bible and Spade A second point is also worth mentioning. As Genesis tells us, God put Joseph into this position in order to save the Patriarchal family.

It is almost certain that Joseph did not know this at the time of his appointment, but God had plans for him. And, in the same way, wherever God places us, He may have a major task for us to do later. Like Joseph, we should do the best we can at whatever task He gives us, so that we will be ready when called upon later.

There was no blood connection between the two men. Pharaoh was an Egyptian; Joseph was a Hebrew. Even if we assume, as many scholars do, that the Pharaoh in the Joseph story was a Hyksos king, there is no reason to suspect any blood relation between the two men. Dismissing that possibility, what then does the phrase "Father of Pharaoh" mean? Father of Pharaoh, or more literally "father of the God" the Egyptians believed their kings to be divine , had a variety of meanings in ancient Egypt. One was as a term for the tutor of the King during the ruler's childhood.

In Joseph's case this is not likely. He had never met the King until called out of prison to interpret the royal dream. Nor does the Bible ever suggest that Joseph held such a post. Another way the title was used was as a designation for an individual whose daughter became a wife of the reigning king. In other words, "Father of the God" meant "father-in-law. The Bible says nothing about Joseph having any daughters, let alone daughters who married the King of Egypt. Yet another usage of the title was as a designation for minor priests in Egypt's complex state religion.

Again, this does not seem even a remote possibility for Joseph. He was never a priest in ancient Egypt, and as a servant of the true God, he would not have such an office. The Egyptians used this title as a special honor given to officials who had served long and well, or who had done the King some special favor.

Joseph would easily qualify for the title Father of the God when used in this way; in fact, this is the only usage that makes sense. Joseph would have been named Father of the God for interpreting the dream of the King, and for suggesting a plan for Egypt to get through seven terrible years of famine. Ruler Throughout all the Land of Egypt Joseph's third possible title is more controversial, and merits a more extended treatment.

Genesis , by calling Joseph "Ruler of all Egypt," seems to suggest that he became the Vizier of Egypt. And, when Pharaoh promoted and rewarded Joseph, he said that only as King would he be greater than Joseph. Ward states that Hebrew phrases such as those mentioned above are not specific equivalents of the Egyptian title of Vizier, but are rather only renditions of vague Egyptian epithets given to other, lesser, officials. However, Joseph obviously held only one of the vague epithets discussed by Ward and that epithet was "Chief of the Entire Land.

And, for the phrase in Genesis , "Only with respect to the throne will I be greater than you," no exact Egyptian parallel exists. The Hebrew text strongly suggests that Joseph became the Vizier of Egypt. Assuming that Joseph was indeed Vizier, what were his duties? There are Egyptian inscriptions that describe the duties of the Vizier of Egypt. Although such inscriptions are much later than Joseph's time they date from the New Kingdom , several texts exist which describe in great detail the duties and powers of the office of Vizier.

More pertinent to Joseph, the Vizier also 34 Aling: Joseph in Egypt: Pt 5 61 was in charge of agricultural production, just what he needed to care for God's people in the time of famine. Also, another power held by the Vizier has great interest in regard to the Joseph story. Only the Vizier welcomed foreign embassies coming into Egypt. So, when Joseph's brothers came to Egypt for food, they would normally meet with the Vizier. And, Joseph is the man they met Gil It is also interesting that in referring to Joseph, the brothers normally call him "the man.

The positions of Vizier and Chief Steward of the King were both very high posts in the government of Ancient Egypt, even as far back as the Middle Kingdom. It is reasonable to ask if there are any known officials with these titles that could have been Joseph. The answer is no, at least at the present time. Also, another major obstacle is that we do not know the Egyptian form of Joseph's name, only the Hebrew.

There is, however, one fact of interest that we know about Middle Kingdom Viziers. It is rare in the early part of the Middle Kingdom period to find one person holding both the title of Vizier and the title of Chief Steward of the King. It is possible that Joseph broke new ground in this regard, being the first person to hold both positions at the same time. The Seven Years of Famine As for the seven years of famine, no contemporary Egyptian record of this famine exists. But from a later time, when Greek kings ruled Egypt after Alexander the Great's conquest of Egypt, there is an Egyptian text which mentions a seven-year famine, but dates it to the reign of King Djoser of the Old Kingdom.

One wonders if this is a garbled memory of the famine in Joseph's day, simply re-dated to the reign of a more famous king. Confirmation of such a theory is nearly impossible, but it is interesting to speculate about. In our next article in this series we will consider some final aspects of the Joseph story. It is very interesting that he evidently held two key titles, Vizier and Chief Steward of the King.

This is relatively unusual in Egyptian history. Significantly, the best known examples come from the Middle Kingdom, exactly the period of Joseph's career. While none of officials holding these two posts can be identified with Joseph, it is probable that he was the first to do so and set a precedent.

Both men were embalmed, or mummified. Today, the popular view is that this was a mysterious process about which we know little or nothing. Such is not the case. With the large number of mummies preserved in museums, we would be poor scientists indeed if we could not reconstruct this procedure. What then were the basics of mummification? First, the body was dried. A great deal was accomplished in this regard by the naturally dry climate of Egypt. I remember seeing a photograph of a Roman soldier who had died in Egypt and who had been buried in the sand without any kind of embalming treatment at all.

His hair was well preserved, as were his teeth, and there was a good deal of skin remaining, too. The Egyptians aided this natural drying process, however. They packed the body with a powdery substance called natron basically sodium carbonate and sodium bi-carbonates. This chemical is found naturally in several locations in Egypt Lucas ff. It is important to realize that a liquid solution was not used, but rather that the body was packed in this dry powder for a period of many days.

The exact length of time in the natron varied according to which period of Egyptian history the mummy belonged and according to the amount being spent on the process. Presumably, a rich family would spend more on preserving their family members. A second thing necessary for mummification was the removal of the vital organs of the body. If these are left inside the person, they will speed decay. Thus, the Egyptian embalmers removed all of the abdominal organs except the heart, and also removed the brain.

This last procedure created a problem, however. The Egyptians were concerned about the body retaining its identity, and they did not want to harm the head or face in any way. They resolved this problem by unraveling and removing the brain through the nose with a sharp hook of some kind. Gruesome as this may sound, it worked rather well. After their removal, some of the organs were wrapped and placed inside containers in the tomb with the mummy. It was expected that they would be needed for a happy life in the next world! Joseph, I am sure, would not have wanted any of these done for him, and, if he had any say in the matter, they were not done.

But, after all this was accomplished, the body would be skillfully wrapped in spiced linen and placed in a coffin. Next, the mummy would be entombed. In Joseph's case, instructions had been left to remove him from Egypt when his family went out of that land. It is, therefore, useless to look for the grave of Joseph in Egypt, since his body left Egypt at the time of the Exodus. A final observation on Joseph's life and career: According to Genesis , Joseph was years old at the time of his death.

This age is interesting, since in ancient Egypt was considered the perfect age at which to die Aling 51, note What happened to the Jewish people after. At first nothing happened. In the early verses of Exodus chapter 1, however, we see that a king rose up who knew nothing of Joseph. This personage was, I believe, a Hyksos Pharaoh. The Hyksos were a foreign people from Syria-Palestine who ruled the northern portions of Egypt in the so-called Second Intermediate Period, ca.

That this king was a Hyksos is shown by a number of things. The Hebrew of Exodus indicates a negative kind of rulership. Also, Exodus states that the king had a fear that the Hebrews would outnumber his people. It is not realistic to believe that the Jews would ever become more numerous that the native population of Egypt; but they certainly could outnumber a ruling minority like the Hyksos. Finally, in Exodus we are told that the Hebrews, as slaves, labored at two cities: Pithom and Ramses. Pithom is not located yet with certainty, and is in any case not important for our discussion here.

In Dynasty 18, ca. The bondage of God's people lasted for many years. Joseph's accomplishments were forgotten for the time being, but were remembered and recorded in Jewish records, were to be written of by Moses, and were also to be rehearsed by uncounted generations to come.

It is hoped that these brief articles have helped to make him a real person, set against the background of Egyptian history and civilization. Bibliography Adams, Barbara Egyptian Mummies. Aling, Charles F. Davis, John J. Lucas, A. London: Edward Arnold. One such literary discovery is the Adapa myth. Its early discoverers and investigators claimed it as a true Babylonian parallel to the biblical story of Adam.

Heidel, The Babylonian Genesis, 2d ed. Chicago, , p. Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei. Classe di scienze, etc. He was created by Ea Sumerian Enki , the god of the great deep and of the world of man, and served the city of Eridu and its temple with great devotion by, among other things, providing fish.

Once a sailing mishap on a fishing expedition made him curse the south wind, thereby breaking its wing, whereupon the land was deprived of its cooling and moist breezes. For this offense he was summoned to the high god Anu Sumerian An to give account of his deed. First, however, he received this advice from his god Ea: 1 to appear in mourning garb at the gate of Anu so as to receive sympathetic assistance from the two heavenly gate keepers, Tammuz and Gizzida vegetation gods ; 2 to refuse the bread and water of death offered to him, but to accept oil for anointing himself and new garments.

With this advice, which he followed carefully, Adapa succeeded admirably in his heavenly audience to Anu's surprise , whereupon he was returned to earth for he was but a man with forgiveness for himself, release from feudal obligations for his city Eridu , and healing for the illness which his offense had brought upon mankind. Now we can turn to the so-called "parallels" between this story and the biblical story of Adam, notably Adam's fall Gen. Sandmel, "Parallelomania," JBL 81 : , warned against it. See now also W.

Speiser in ANET, Of the four extant fragments, three A, C, D derive from the Ashurbanipal library 7th cent. Ebeling to occur o in a syllabary text with the meaning "man. Reiner, 13 who on the basis of the epithets apkallu and especially ummanu has 7 See Shea, pp. The name adamu syllabically spelled is now reported to have been found on the Ebla tablets as the name of a governor of that city see M. From the same city a calendar with the month name d a-dam-ma-um has appeared see G. Shea, who kindly drew my attention to this item, has presented a discussion of the calendar in question in AUSS 18 : , and 19 : , Also the Sumerian a-dam pasture may offer an opportunity to speculate upon the etymology of Adam see W.

Taken at face value, the Genesis account would appear to tie Adam to 'adama ground , from which the man was taken and to which he will return. Lambert, however, has argued on the basis of another text that the epithet of Adapa should be read m umanna, and that its determinative produces a double name, Umanna- Adapa, 15 which was transferred into Greek as the Oannes of Berossos.

At any rate, some etymo- logical relationship between Adam and Adapa now seems likely, although any original meaning behind them both is not thereby elucidated. The functional meaning of Adam, namely "man" homo sapiens , may take us as closely as we can get to the names of our characters. But whether Adapa in fact failed is a moot question. It would mean that he failed unwittingly by completely obeying his god Ea in refusing the bread and water of death, which actually turned out to be emblems of life. Ea, in turn, would have to be understood as deceiving Adapa by keeping divinity from him making him refuse the heavenly food for a selfish reason, namely that he wanted to retain the service of Adapa in Eridu.

See also W. Burrows, "Note on Adapa," Or, no. Noth and D. Winton Thomas Leiden, : ; Foster, p. This would imply that Ea underestimated the willing- ness of Anu to receive and pardon Adapa and hence unfortunately, unnecessarily, and perhaps unwittingly warned his protege about the presumed dangerous bread and water of heaven.

Shea rightly points out, is weakened by the fact that Ea everywhere appears as the god of wisdom, cleverness, and cunning, and that indeed at the very moment of giving his advice Ea is introduced as "he who knows what pertains to heaven. Bohl Festschrift Leiden, , p. Welskopf Berlin, , p. Kramer Garden City, N. He restored Inanna from the underworld, reviving her with the water and grass of life see T.

Jacobsen, The Treasures of Darkness, p. He averted a rebellion among the lower gods by proposing and arranging the creation of man W. Lambert and A. Millard, Atra-Hasis [Oxford, ], p. He solved the crisis caused by Apsu's rage by cleverly placing a spell over him and having him killed ANET, p. Also cf. Kienast, pp. If this interpretation is at all correct, the heavenly food may at one and the same time be food of life and food of death, depending upon the one who eats it.

A similar duality may be reflected in the biblical picture of the two trees: one of life, leading to eternal life Gen ; the other of knowledge, presumed to offer godlikeness, no but actually leading to mortality Gen. A case in point is Anu's reaction to Adapa's offense: "'Mercy! Also, the Atra-Hasis myth finds him unable to propose a solution to Enlil's problem, namely, a rebellion among the lower gods Lambert and Millard, Atra-Hasis, pp. In general, Anu appears less resourceful and predictable than Ea, like a weak and insecure chairman of the board!

The idea is that Anu, impressed with Adapa's power and skill, decided to include him among the gods-an old illustration of the maxim: If you can't beat them, join them or make them join you. Gen locates the forbidden tree in the midst of the garden, but does not otherwise name it, whereas Gen speaks of the tree of life from which man must now be kept.

Concerning the two trees, located at the same place, man is forbidden to eat from one, never commanded to eat from the other, but subsequently hindered from reaching it. The tree of life plant of life occurs relatively frequently in ancient Near Eastern literature B. It is tempting to suppose that this "double tree" in the midst of the garden indicates two postures that man can take: 1 He can eat of one presuming to be a god and die, or 2 he can refuse to do so remaining human , but staying alive with access to the other tree.

He cannot eat from both. Ea does not deceive Adapa to keep him mortal and in his service in Eridu. He saves his life from what ordinarily would mean certain death through a presumption to be a god. If this is correct, the alleged parallel between Adapa and Adam over failing a test involving food falls away, but another emerges: Both were subject to a test involving food and both received two sets of advice; namely, "do not eat" God and Ea and "eat" serpent and Anu. One, Adapa, obeyed and passed his test; the other, Adam, disobeyed and failed. Instead, it may indicate Anu's amused satisfaction over Adapa's wisdom and loyal obedience, which enables him to refuse that heavenly food, the acceptance of which would be an act of hybris.

Hence he is rewarded with life on earth, rather than with punishment by death. Yet even the gods are not unalterably immortal, for they too depend upon eating and upon care and are vulnerable before a variety of adverse circumstances. Bohl, p. For the relationship between this fragment and the main fragment B from the Amarna archives see Bohl, pp. However, once Adam has lost his immortality, he too must be kept from seeking it anew Gen f. Adam's offense is clearly that he broke the prohibition regarding the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, with the implication that in grasping for this knowledge he aspired for divinity.

On the basis of the presumed parallel with Gen 3, the answer has often been that like Adam so Adapa offended unwittingly in the matter of eating and drinking , except that Adapa declined to eat where Adam declined to avoid eating. Three things may be observed concerning this act. First, Adapa broke the wind with a word. He clearly was in no possession of magic power, something which may explain the incantation in fragment D employed to dispel illness.

Second, 34 Foster, p. See J. But see also B. Foster, p. His anger over capsizing is directed not against his god Ea, who sent him out to sea, but against the wind that blew over his boat. In other words, he broke the wind in his eager devotion to Ea, possibly not counting the consequences vis-a-vis the land. By maiming the south wind, Adapa halted the cooling life-giving breezes from the sea, leaving the land exposed to the scorching sun. Roux found in this condition an explanation of the presence of Tammuz and Gizzida both fertility gods at Anu's door.

It would also explain Ea's advice to Adapa that he approach the gate where the fertility gods were waiting, in mourning over their miserable condition so as to express his contrition and gain their sympathy and help. In that, Ea and Adapa were eminently successful. This success is indicated by Adapa's recognition before Anu, his acceptance of the signs of hospitality, 41 which, very much to Anu's astonishment, 42 he knew how to receive while discreetly refusing that to which he was not entitled the heavenly bread and water.

At this point a clear contrast with the story of Adam emerges, for excuses and a self- defense, not contrition and obedience, characterize Adam's con- frontation with God. Roux, "Adapa, le vent et l'eau," RA 55 : That only seven days are involved does not speak against this conclusion thus Foster, p. Adapa is not being invested as a heavenly being only to lose it all by refusing his meal. Rather he is being accepted and forgiven of his offense, thanks to his contrition, caution, and the good offices of Tammuz and Gizzida.

According to frag- ment A, line 6, he is a "model of men," a human archetype; and as B. Foster suggests, this particular aspect of Adapa's character iden- tifies him as a wise man whose abilities extend in several directions. He bakes, cooks, prepares the offering, steers the ship, and catches the fish for the city A, lines Second, he is a vizier to the first antediluvian king, Alulim. Although unlike Adam, he is not the first man, still he is a sort of prototype, so that the matters pertaining to all mankind are explicable in reference to him as, for instance, is apparently the case with regard to mortality, as portrayed in this myth.

What Adapa does, or what he is, has consequences for subsequent generations of mankind, not because he passed on to them some form of original sin, but because through his wisdom offered this added explanation by attributing the following words to Anu: "Of the gods of heaven and earth, as many as there be, who ever gave such a command, so as to make his own command exceed the command of Anu?

Anu is surprised that his ruling in the matter had been anticipated and met with such a wise response-perhaps a little annoyed, as well, at being found out! Here a parallel as well as a contrast between Adapa and Adam emerges. Both are primal men, but the heritage which each one passes on to subsequent genera- tions varies considerably. Contrasts Between Adapa and Adam From considerations such as the foregoing, it can only be concluded, so it would seem, that although the stories of Adapa and Adam exhibit some parallels notably in regard to the name and primal position of the two chief characters , they also reveal important contrasts.

Therefore, those interpreters who insist upon reading the Adapa myth without assistance from the familiar categories of Gen 3 do make an important and necessary point. The story of Adapa is a myth or legend set in the earliest time antediluvian of southern Mesopotamia, and it intends perhaps in a somewhat whimsical way to give expression to certain distressing situations. The most immediate of these concerns is human mortality. The response of the myth is that man cannot gain immortality, for that is the exclusive prerogative of the gods.

Even Adapa, the foremost among men, after whom all mankind is patterned—with all his wisdom, skill, and power— cannot achieve it. Immortality, therefore, cannot be had by humans; it belongs exclusively to the gods, who alone are the ultimate rulers of the universe. To this life Adapa is returned, a wiser man who is aware of the distance between heaven and earth. But more importantly, the myth concerns itself with human authority, even arrogance, before the gods.

Here the myth is ambivalent. Obviously, Adapa's authority is being curtailed, for he 49 Foster, p. He obtains a reception, life, and some trophies. This is possible because the gods, though immortal, are themselves vulnerable. They depend upon Adapa's provisions for the temple and are subject to his rash breaking of the south wind, thereby throwing the whole land into disarray.

The liberation given to Eridu D, line 10 may be a recognition of the fact that there are limits to the gods' dependence and reliance upon mankind. The myth ends with a reference to illness which could permanently terminate even the limited and temporal existence of mankind. The healing promised through an appeal to the goddess Ninkarrak D, lines is appropriately attached to the myth of Adapa's successful confrontation with the gods. Just as the wing of the south wind, and hence life in land and city, can be healed, so also can human illness, through a proper relationship with the gods, who are both the rulers of the world and its providers of life.

In short, the myth of Adapa is an attempt to come to terms with the vicissitudes of human life, as it exists, by insisting that so it is ordained. It suggests that by wisdom, cunning, humility, and 50 This appears to be an issue in the Atra-Hasis flood story. The high gods set mankind to work in order to appease the low gods; subsequently mankind rebels and by its size frightens the high gods into sending a flood, whereupon they suffer from the lack of mankind's service.

See Lambert and Millard, Atra-Hasis. The suggestion that the flood represents a disruption identifiable as an overpopulation problem only underscores the fact that the gods are vulnerable before their creatures and unable to control their own solution to their problem see T. For this suggestion see Bohl, p. Gen , on the other hand, seeks to explain why existing conditions are what they clearly ought not to be. Therefore, Adam, unlike Adapa, is not struggling with distressing human problems such as immortality, nor is he strapped down with duties of providing for city and temple, nor is he caught up in the tension between his obligations to his God and hindrances to such obliga- tions arising from an evil world 54 or from inner wickedness.

The only other potential difficulty in this harmonious existence lies in his capacity to disobey his God. Moreover, not only in his existence before God, but also in his confrontation with God does Adam differ from Adapa.

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That con- frontation arises from an experience of weakness in yielding to temptation, not from blind devotion, as in the case of Adapa. Also, Adam fails to manifest contrition similar to that of Adapa. And finally, again unlike Adapa, Adam refuses to take responsibility for his deed; he hides from it and subsequently blames his wife. Adam's fall is therefore much more serious than Adapa's offense, perhaps because of the considerable height from which Adam tumbled. Even the nature of the relationship between man and God is different in Gen God is not vulnerable before Adam, yet he 54 For a discussion of these common human tensions, see W.

Pedersen "Wisdom and Immortality," p. To be sure, both Adam and Adapa made approaches towards divinity by means of wisdom, but Adapa did so from the position of human inadequacy. Adam, on the other hand, suf- fered no such lack. He enjoyed a relationship with his God through filial obedience and was in possession of all wisdom cf.

Gordis, "The Knowledge of Good and Evil," p. Gen Adam, on the other hand, is dependent upon God, but appears to ignore that fact cf. In short, then, we conclude that parallels do indeed exist between Adam and Adapa, but they are seriously blunted by the entirely different contexts in which they occur. Analysis of the "Seesaw" Parallelism How, then, shall we explain this "seesaw" parallelism? Does Adapa represent a parallel to the biblical Adam, or should Adam and Adapa rather be contrasted?

The suggestion of this essay is that in Adam and Adapa we have the representation of two different anthropological characters, perhaps capable of being illustrated by an actor who plays two distinct roles, but who is clearly recogniz- able in each. The Adapa character assigned to this actor is suitable for its cultural milieu.

It is that of a wise man. The epithet apkallu supports it, and his identification with Berossos' Oannes confirms it. His wisdom is ordained by his god Ea, and it comes to expression in the devotion and obedience with which he conducts his affairs. Adapa is not a "sinner," but a "perfect man. He is a human archetype who compares best to such biblical personalities as Noah, Joseph, Moses, Job, and Daniel, who are also models of wisdom, devotion, and obedience, and who represent ideals to be imitated.

These are not unlike the conflicting interests with which biblical man is confronted, except that the perpetrators in the latter case are humans. For man to survive in such a world takes wisdom, integrity, reliability, devotion, and humility before the unalterable superiority of the divine powers. But the ideal human character can succeed in this. He may not achieve all that 57 Cf. According to Buccellati, p. The notion of faith emerges in Adapa's total commitment to his god's counsel. See also Xella, p. Here is a clear parallel between Adapa and certain OT ideals, particularly in the wisdom literature.

The Adam role, however, is that of the first man, who is sinless and destined to immortality—of one who, even though a created being, is in the image of God and who enjoys his presence continually. We very much suspect that the same actor is indeed playing, because of the similarity of the names of our characters, because of their primary position among the antediluvians, and because of certain distinct experiences they had in common e.

But the precise role which Adam plays is foreign to the Mesopotamian literature. Unlike Adapa, Adam, though made of clay, originally has the potential for immortality and is totally free before God. Further, Adam serves the earth, rather than temple. Moreover, although he possesses enormous wisdom so as to name the animals, Gen , he is not portrayed as a teacher of civilization to mankind. Rather, he exists above and before civilization, in a pristine state of purity, nobility, and complete harmony. Further- more, his confrontation with God is not in sorrow or mourning, comparable to the experience of Adapa; he is subsequently brought low while blaming his misadventures upon a woman.

In this, Adam is clearly not an ideal to be followed, but a warning to all— a failing individual, rather than a noble, heroic one. Here a clear contrast emerges between our two characters. According to an old proposal, 58 recently resurrected, 59 the actor who played these two characters— the noble Adapa and the ignoble Adam— was brought to the ancient Near East by west Semitic peoples.

On the scene staged by the Mesopotamian artists he characterized man as the noble, wise, reliable, and devoted, but humble, hero who is resigned to live responsibly before his god. However, in the biblical tradition, the characterization came through in quite a different way, which has put its lasting mark 58 By A. This portrayal, to be sure, is not meant to reduce the spirit of man to pessimism and despair, but to remind him that despite all the wisdom, cunning, reliability, and devotion of which he is capable and is duty-bound to exercise, he is also always a sinner whose unpredictability, untrustworthiness, and irresponsi- bility can never be totally ignored nor denied.

The best answer to this question may well be that Adam and Adapa represent two distinct charac- terizations of human nature. The parallels we have noted in the accounts may suggest that the two characterizations have a common origin, whereas the contrasts between them may indicate that two branches of Near Eastern civilization took clearly distinguish- able sides in the dialogue over human nature.

Yet these lines are not so different that the resulting two characterizations of man are unable to dialogue.

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He correctly observes that the purpose of the fall narrative is not "to dwell upon failure," but to affirm and reaffirm God's trust in man. But he further states, "The miracle grows larger, for Yahweh is willing to trust what is not trustworthy. The gospel out of the tenth century is not that David or Adam is trustworthy, but that he has been trusted" ibid. This is surely good theology, but it hardly succeeds in refurbishing man, as Brueggemann would have us do.

The story of Adam's fall, it seems to me, insists that even at its best, mankind is not as good as it ought to be or as we might wish it to be. Armerding Regent College Vancouver 8, B. Professor Kenneth Hare of the University of Toronto recently answered the question 1 by dividing people and publications into 3 categories. First, and perhaps most vocal today, are the alarmists, many of whom are prof- iting immensely by writing and speaking on a kind of apocalyptic level, who see the technological society as having created a monster which, if unchecked, will swallow up both man and nature within a few short years.

Hare suggests that much of this group's concern is with what he calls "nuisance pollution", i. Especially in its multi-volume form this is one of the old evangelical works that offers fairly solid though brief help on many verses" Commentaries for Biblical Expositors: An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Works. C H Spurgeon writes "Of this I have a very high opinion. It is the joint work of Mr. Jamieson, A. Fausset, and Dr. David Brown. Provides an excellent treatment of the period from Abraham to Joseph. Deserving of careful reading. James Rosscup writes that "The author holds to the Documentary Hypothesis but d oes not deny the uniqueness of Genesis or minimize the significance and authority of its message.

He is careful in the Hebrew and deals with the problems, providing much to aid the expositor. It takes up less space than the original fifty-volume set, and not everything in the original set is worth owning. Cyril J. Barber - This set, originally published in , contains expositions by both conservative and liberal theologians.

ARNO C. James Rosscup writes that "This dispensationally oriented work is not verse-by-verse, but deals with the exposition on a broader scale, treating blocks of thought within the chapters. The author was a popular evangelical Bible teacher of the first part of the century, much like H. Ironside in his diligent but broad, practical expositions of Bible books.

Gaebelein was premillennial and dispensational, and editor for many years of Our Hope Magazine. C H Spurgeon -- "Beyond all controversy, John Gill was one of the most able Hebraists of his day, and in other matters no mean proficient His great work on the Holy Scriptures is greatly prized at the present day by the best authorities, which is conclusive evidence of its value, since the set of the current of theological thought is quite contrary to that of Dr.

His ultraism is discarded, but his learning is respected: the world and the church take leave to question his dogmatism, but they both bow before his erudition. Say what you will about that lore, it has its value: of course, a man has to rake among perfect dunghills and dust-heaps, but there are a few jewels which the world could not afford to miss. Gill was a master cinder-sifter among the Targums , the Talmuds , the Mishnah , and the Gemara. He was always at work; it is difficult to say when he slept, for he wrote 10, folio pages of theology.

The portrait of him which belongs to this church, and hangs in my private vestry, and from which all the published portraits have been engraved, represents him after an interview with an Arminian gentleman, turning up his nose in a most expressive manner, as if he could not endure even the smell of free-will. In some such a vein he wrote his commentary. He hunts Arminianism throughout the whole of it. He is far from being so interesting and readable as Matthew Henry. He delivered his comments to his people from Sabbath to Sabbath, hence their peculiar mannerism.

This is an easy method, gentlemen, of filling up the time, if you are ever short of heads for a sermon. Show your people firstly, secondly, and thirdly, what the text does not mean, and then afterwards you can go back and show them what it does mean. It may be thought, however, that one such a teacher is enough, and that what was tolerated from a learned doctor would be scouted in a student fresh from college.

For good, sound, massive, sober sense in commenting, who can excel Gill? Very seldom does he allow himself to be run away with by imagination, except now and then when he tries to open up a parable, and finds a meaning in every circumstance and minute detail; or when he falls upon a text which is not congenial with his creed, and hacks and hews terribly to bring the word of God into a more systematic shape.

Gill is the Coryphaeus the leader of the Greek chorus and thus the leader of any movement of Hyper-Calvinism , but if his followers never went beyond their master, they would not go very far astray. James Rosscup adds that "Gill — , a pastor of England, wrote these which are two-column pages, ca. He also wrote Body of Divinity, 3 volumes, and several other volumes.

His commentary is evangelical, wrestles with texts, is often wordy and not to the point but with worthy things for the patient who follow the ponderous detail and fish out slowly what his interpretation of a text is. He feels the thousand years in Revelation 20 cannot begin until after the conversion of the Jews and the bringing in of the fullness of the Gentiles and destruction of all anti-Christian powers volume 6, p. He feels the group that gathers against the holy city at the end of the thousand years is the resurrected wicked dead from the four quarters of the earth i.

James Rosscup rates this as the 1 devotional commentary on Genesis. Rosscup writes "the notes by W. This work is good in tracing the argument and showing connections between chapters. It is usually quite good devotionally and gives suggestions for meditation at the ends of the chapters.

Applications are often usable.

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It is an excellent book to put into the hands of a layman who is not ready to grapple with the minutia of exegesis, but who is serious about his Bible study. It is also good for the preacher and teacher. Since it is out of print, readers must search in other places for it. James Rosscup writes that "This is the best older, overall treatment of a critical nature on the Old Testament Hebrew text verse by verse and is a good standard work to buy. The student can buy parts or the whole of this series.

Sometimes it is evangelical, at other times liberal ideas enter. C H Spurgeon -- "A work for the learned. It has received the highest commendations from competent scholars. But it is somewhat dull and formal. Cyril Barber - this work concentrates on the spiritual significance of the lives of those mentioned by Moses in his first book. See also Amazon book reviews.

Click for warnings about Typological Interpretation. C H Spurgeon writes that this work is "not exactly a commentary, but what marvelous expositions you have there! You have reading more interesting than any novel that was ever written, and as instructive as the heaviest theology. C H Spurgeon writes that The Pictorial Bible is "A work of art as well as learning" adding that if one "cannot visit the Holy Land, it is well for you that there is a work like the Pictorial Bible, in which the notes of the most observant travelers are arranged under the texts which they illustrate.

For the geography, zoology, botany, and manners and customs of Palestine, this will be your counselor and guide. It's pages beckon the reader to tarry a moment and peruse the interesting comments on subjects that might otherwise be quite foreign to readers of a western culture and mindset. Rosscup notes that "The treatments of books within this evangelical set vary in importance. Generally, one finds a wealth of detailed commentary, background, and some critical and exegetical notes.

Often, however, there is much excess verbiage that does not help particularly. On the other hand, it usually has something to assist the expositor on problems and is a good general set for pastors and serious lay people though it is old. James Rosscup notes that "In this very thorough, monumental work on Genesis, the author is conservative and uses the original Hebrew constantly.

He considers carefully most major truths of the book and uses the grammatical-historical method. This is one of the most valuable works to have on Genesis. It came out originally in What the Bible teaches — Much detail, and loyal to the high view of Scripture.

Some very good insights. Rosscup rates Leupold's commentary as the fifth best detailed exegetical commentary of all time on the book of Genesis. Be aware that Leupold is amillennial. Conservative, Evangelical, Millennial. Mackintosh, a Plymouth Brethren, was a gifted teacher and writer.

D L Moody said that " it was C. Mackintosh who had the greatest influence " upon his learning of the Word of God. One of his most respected works was Notes on the Pentateuch. Further biographical Note - Another format - Genesis ; Genesis James Rosscup has a relevant note on Mackintosh's work on the Pentateuch writing that "This is a one-volume edition of an old evangelical devotional work Genesis to Deuteronomy, Notes on the Pentateuch.

It has some value at times, especially for lay readers, yet is not to the point as much with pertinent material as W. Abraham: The Obedience of Faith - click for all chapters below on one file. James Rosscup writes that "This evangelical work is both homiletical and expository and is often very good homiletically but weaker otherwise. Helpful in discussing Bible characters, it is weak in prophecy at times because of allegorization. It is not really as valuable today as many other sets for the serious Bible student.

The expositions are in the form of sermons.. Many of these devotionals begin with excellent illustrations. Here is an example from Genesis -. He believed that creation would be like a fingerprint, revealing key aspects of the character of the Creator. In making a classification system, he was only discovering an order that was already there.


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See also link with list of over mentions of Genesis on Gracegems. Rosscup notes that "Driver was a careful scholar and aids the expositor in understanding the meanings of difficult phrases It helps on problems, though Driver was liberal. Rosscup comments on Murphy's style in his commentary on Exodus "This old evangelical work of pp. Murphy gives only his own comments, and only now and then any special help.

The old writing style slows reading and takes longer to get to a point. Comments often point in a good direction but brevity hampers. James Rosscup writes that "Morgan was an evangelical master at surveying a book and giving its message within a brief compass. He introduces each book with a chart giving an analysis and synthesis.

Revell put it out in a one-volume form in As an aside G Campbell Morgan would read the book from which he planned to preach as many as 40 times till its related parts became clear in sections and paragraphs! Little wonder he was able to honestly entitle his work "The Analyzed Bible"! Dr Morris is one of the most well known creationist of modern times and thus his study Bible notes are fairly detailed in the book of Genesis.

Recommended to supplement your study of this foundational book of Truth regarding the beginnings of sin and of redemption for when sin abounded in Eden, grace abounded all the more! Of great importance for the scientific data that has been included in the author's exposition. Should be consulted by all who wish to be well-informed on the issues alluded to by Moses.

NETBible notes are in the right panel. You can also select the tab for "Constable's Notes. This is a very helpful feature. If you are not familiar with the great saint Charles Simeon see Dr John Piper's discussion of Simeon's life - you will want to read Simeon's sermons after meeting him! Introduction Revelation or Myth? Genesis In The Beginning. Why is a day measured from evening to morning in Genesis 1? What is the Gap Theory? Did anything happen in between Genesis and ?

What is the canopy theory? How could there be light on the first day of Creation if the sun was not created until the fourth day? Why are there two different Creation accounts in Genesis chapters ? What happened on each of the days of Creation? Why does the Bible describe the moon as a light? Why did God rest on the seventh day of creation Genesis ? Why did God make man out of the dust of the earth Genesis ?

What is the biblical Creation story? How do beliefs about creation impact the rest of theology? What is the breath of life? Were Adam and Eve saved? How many children did Adam and Eve have? When were Adam and Eve created? Who was Eve in the Bible? What does it mean that God gave humanity dominion over the animals? Why did God use Adam's rib to create Eve? How was the woman a helper suitable for the man Genesis ? What did God mean when He told Adam and Eve to be fruitful and multiply?

Did God create other people in addition to Adam and Eve? Was Satan the serpent in Genesis chapter 3? Was Adam with Eve when she spoke to the serpent Genesis ? What is the meaning of the tree of life? Was Adam and Eve's sin really about eating a piece of forbidden fruit? Did God literally and visibly walk in the garden Genesis ?

Why did God punish women with pain in childbirth Genesis ? Is it wrong to reduce birth pains by taking pain relievers? What is the Adamic covenant? What is the Protoevangelium? Did we all inherit sin from Adam and Eve? How did the Fall affect humanity? What is the location of the Garden of Eden? Why did God put the tree of knowledge of good and evil in the Garden of Eden? Why didn't Adam and Eve find it strange that a serpent was talking to them?

How did the knowledge of good and evil make man like God Genesis ? Why was it wrong for Adam and Eve to know good and evil Genesis ? Why did God have the cherubim guard just the east side of Eden Genesis ? Why did Cain then kill Abel? Who was Cain's wife? Who was Cain afraid of after he killed Abel? What was the mark that God put on Cain Genesis ? Why did people in Genesis live such long lives? Who was the oldest man in the Bible? Why did Lamech think Noah would bring comfort Genesis ? Who are the sons of God and daughters of men in Genesis ? What should we learn from the life of Noah? What was it like in the days of Noah?

Why did God also destroy animals in the Flood Genesis ? Were fish and sea creatures also destroyed during the Flood Genesis ? Was Noah's flood global?

NTERPRETATION I 84~ HISTORY

Had it ever rained before the Flood in Noah's day? Did the Bible copy the Flood account from other myths and legends? How long did it take Noah to build the ark? How long was Noah on the ark? What is gopher wood? Why did Noah release a raven? Why did he later release a dove Genesis 8? How did Noah fit all the animals on the ark? What made some animals clean and others unclean Genesis 7?

Would the discovery of Noah's Ark be important? What is the Noahic Covenant? Why did God prohibit eating meat with blood in it Genesis ? Why did God mandate capital punishment for murder Genesis ? Why did Noah get drunk after the flood? Who were the sons of Noah, and what happened to them and their descendants? What happened at the Tower of Babel? What is the Table of Nations? Who were the Rephaim? Who was Melchizedek? Why was a burial place so important in the Bible? What should we learn from the life of Abraham? Why was Abraham promised land that belonged to others Genesis 12?

What is the story of Abraham and Lot? What is the Abrahamic Covenant? What should we learn from the life of Sarah? What was a blood covenant Genesis ? Why did God send the Israelites to Egypt for years Genesis ? What is the land that God promised to Israel? What is the significance of a city gate in the Bible? What was the sin of Sodom and Gomorrah? Why was Lot's wife turned into a pillar of salt?

Why did Lot offer up his daughters to be gang raped? Why did God allow Lot's daughters to later have sex with their father? What should we learn from the life of Isaac? What was the significance of weaning a child in the Bible Genesis ? What is the story of Sarah and Hagar? Why did Abraham banish Ishmael Genesis ? Why did oaths involve putting a hand under someone's thigh Genesis ? Why did God command Abraham to sacrifice Isaac? What should we learn from the life of Jacob? What was the story of Jacob and Esau? Why was a father's blessing so highly valued in the Old Testament?

What is the difference between a blessing and a birthright Genesis 25? What is Jacob's Ladder? What is the story of Jacob, Leah, and Rachel? What was the purpose of a dowry Genesis ? Why did people keep family idols in the Bible? What is the meaning of Jacob wrestling with God?

What are the mandrakes mentioned in the Bible? What should we learn from the life of Joseph? Why did Jacob give Joseph a coat of many colors? What is the significance of a scarlet thread? What is the story of Joseph and his brothers? What is the story of Joseph and Potiphar? Who were the priests of On? Was Joseph wrong to marry the daughter of a pagan priest Genesis 41?

Why did Pharaoh give Joseph so much power? What kind of divination did Joseph do in Genesis , 15? What are the twelve tribes of Israel? Genesis —31 Can You Study a Miracle? Does that mean there is no room for failure in the Christian life? Is there ever a just reason for it?

Genesis ; Ezra —; —26; Jeremiah ; Daniel — Is my Bible really free from errors? Marrying the Right One! Mike Minnix Oops! Dickerson, Jr. Mike Minnix Jacob, Jacob! Moriah to Mt. Genesis ,; Why Am I Here? Genesis What Hope for Society? Creation and Restoration. Christ in Genesis 1. Two Trees. The Fall. The Fall, continued. The Fall, concluded. Cain and Abel. Cain and Abel, continued. The Flood. Noah a Type of Christ. The Typology of the Ark. God's Covenant with Noah. Noah's Fall and Noah's Prophecy.

Nimrod and the Tower of Babel. The Call of Abraham. Abraham and Lot.


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  8. Abraham and Melchizedek. Abraham's Vision. Abraham and Hagar. Abraham at Ninety and Nine. Abraham at Gerar. The Birth of Isaac. The Offering Up of Isaac. The Man Isaac. Isaac Blessing His Sons. The Man Jacob. Jacob at Padan-Aram. Jacob at Padan-Aram, continued. Jacob's Departure from Haran. Jacob at Mahanaim. Jacob at Peniel. Jacob Meeting Esau. Jacob at Bethel Again. The Sunset of Jacob's Life. Jacob's Prophecy. Jacob's Prophecy, continued. Joseph As a Youth. Joseph Betrayed by His Brethren. Joseph in Egypt. Joseph's Exaltation. Joseph the Savior of the World.

    Joseph and His Brethren, Dispensationally Considered. Joseph and His Brethren, Evangelically Considered. Click the respective chapters below for the sermons listed Summary Chart of The Book of Genesis. Abraham's Faith Ge Isaac's Family Ge Jacob's Conflicts Ge Joseph's Calamity Ge Beginning of the Hebrew Race Family of Abraham. Faithfulness of Mankind Noah. Faithfulness of One Man's Family Abraham. Eastward From Eden to Ur. Westward From Canaan to Egypt. Primeval History of Humanity. Patriarchal History of Israel. Genesis A Question for Atheists. A Revelation of God and of Nature.

    Beginning is a Word Familiarly on Our Lips. Chance Cannot Explain Order in Creation. Archbishop Tillotson. Chance not Creative. James G. Murphy, LL. Creation a Comforting Thought. Creation's Birth. Genesis of the Universe. God the Author of All Things.