Recuerdos de la era analógica. Una antología del futuro (Spanish Edition)
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Destaca un nombre en particular. Pesan en total 9. En casa de Clarke y Bennett los armarios rebosan de ropa Prada y Versace, diamantes y otras joyas. Hodgetts decide arriesgarlo todo. Nadie contesta su llamada. Al registrar la casa oye que llaman a la puerta. En el umbral ve a un hombre delgado, de mediana edad, con trenzas. Hodgetts lo reconoce por las fotos de vigilancia. No puede creer en su buena suerte. Hodgetts esposa a Bowfoot.
El total de adictos a ambas drogas se calcula en , In July it hosted the G8 summit for the first time. But how real is its evolution toward democracy? In , David Satter filed a report card on Russia for Reader's Digest as it prepared to free itself from communism. We recently sent him back to update his findings.
Personal Freedom: Just before New Year student Aliona Maximtsova, 26, prepared to board her flight from Moscow's Sheremetyevo-2 airport to Amsterdam, where she was joining her boyfriend to see in Thousands of young Russians like her, some already celebrating, were waiting in long lines for flights all over the world.
The crowded departure lounge was full of women in long mink coats. She is accustomed to going abroad for holidays and plans a career as a tour guide. But Bella Minikova, a Moscow schoolteacher in her sixties, is amazed at the changes that have occurred in her country. Foreign travel expands their world view and they see Russia with new eyes when they return. Thirty years ago, the mere possession of a copy could get you into serious trouble with the authorities. Moscow bookstores are filled with works critical of contemporary Russia and President Vladmir Putin.
In Pushkin Square, where dissident gatherings used to be dispersed by the police, political demonstrations are a regular event. Yet this freedom is not complete. When I talked with her in , Rita Luchkov, a Moscow housewife, was still stunned by the first stirrings of political freedom. Now, she has a more nuanced view of what Russia has achieved. The bureaucracy is on the same level-rude, brutal and dishonest.
If a person falls upon hard times, if he is a victim of a medical mistake or police abuse, there is no help for him. The Press: When Islamic terrorists seized a school full of children in Beslan, southern Russia, in the newspaper Izvestiya claimed the authorities were lying about the number of hostages. Instead of being held, as officials claimed, there were actually 1, Then the paper ran graphic full-page photographs of the attack that ended the siege.
Editor-in-chief Raf Shakirov says that the Kremlin told the heads of Profmedia, which owns Izvestiya, that the paper's coverage was unacceptable. Alexander Podrabinek, to whom I talked 15 years ago when he was editing Ekspress Khronika, an unofficial weekly newspaper that campaigned against Soviet censorship, believes that many journalists are still afraid of the authorities.
He travels every year to Cuba with computers, tape recorders and literature for dissidents. Press coverage during elections supports Kremlin-supported candidates. In the last presidential elections, Putin was omnipresent on television and always depicted positively. Communist candidate Nikolai Kharitonov was rarely mentioned and then only negatively. Journalists who seek to expose crime or corruption are often killed. According to the Committee for the Protection of Journalists CPJ , at least 12 journalists have been murdered since Putin took office on Dec 31, , making Russia the world's fourth most dangerous country for journalists.
Not one person has been brought to justice. Grade: C. The Rule of Law: Transparency International, which monitors corruption worldwide, ranks Russia th in the world in terms of honesty alongside Niger, Albania and Sierra Leone, according to its index. The rule of law is absent throughout Russian society. Massive official corruption entangles business owners in a web of crime. Business owners pay bribes to the police and government agencies and the weight of constant payoffs leads them to cheat on their taxes.
Konstantin Gagarin, a wholesale clothing importer, said that businesses do not show their real turnover. Among small and medium-sized businesses, this is practically universal. If they did not do this, their business would be unprofitable. There would be too much money for the government. You pay a broker to get your goods through customs and part of what you pay him goes to the customs official. An entire industry has grown up dedicated to stealing companies from their rightful owners and selling them to the highest bidder. A company buys shares in a factory and then takes legal action against the management in a court thousands of miles away.
The court rules in favor of the plaintiff in return for a bribe and the new shareholder begins an audit of the enterprise. In Samara, about km southeast of Moscow, lies Togliatti-Azot, a giant chemical factory and the world's largest producer of ammonia. In , the Renova group, run by Viktor Wechselberg, an oligarch close to Putin, and another holding company, Evrokhim, jointly formed a company, Synttech. It bought a ten percent interest in Togliatti-Azot and attempted to put its representative on the board of directors.
This led to searches by federal agents and the seizure of documents. In June , the director of the factory, Vladimir Makhlai, who owns the controlling packet of shares, was charged with tax evasion and a warrant was issued for his arrest. He disappeared and, according to a factory spokesman, was receiving medical treatment at an undisclosed location. Renova announced it was ready to negotiate the purchase of his shares. Now they find them. This is confirmation that the basic goal is not to get the taxes but to seize the enterprise. Officers routinely shake down citizens during identity checks and traffic stops.
Film-maker Andrei Nekrasov was stopped in St. Petersburg one night after he mistakenly turned down a one-way street. The officer who halted him should have written out a ticket to be paid at the state bank. Instead, he demanded 80 rubles. The policeman began to lecture him on traffic safety. Grade: D. The Economy: Flush with Russia's oil profits, Moscow reeks of prosperity.
It has more billionaires than any other city in the world. Roman Abramovich is Russia's richest man. Following the death of his parents, he was raised by an uncle and owns castles in France and Scotland, Chelsea Football Club in London, his own Boeing jet, and four luxury yachts, each reportedly equipped with a swimming pool, helicopter landing pad and mini-submarine. Many of Russia's new capitalists live in the village of Zhukovka, eight kilometers outside Moscow.
Protected by armed guards and sequestered behind high walls, they enjoy a lifestyle that would have been unimaginable during the Soviet era. In the Zhukovka-Plaza shopping centre, you can buy a gold mobile telephone with gold keys for 86, Euros or a phone made out of platinum with embedded diamonds for 46, Euros. Konstantin Vasiliev, the owner of Stensis, a furniture manufacturing company, worked as a dealer for a Finnish furniture firm until the Russian financial crash of With the sharp fall in the value of the ruble, the Finnish firm's products became too expensive for Russians so Vasiliev began to produce furniture himself.
Stensis now makes office furniture and kitchen cabinets for the middle class market Moscow's middle class alone is estimated at more than a million people. According to a report in Parlamentskaya Gazeta, the State Duma's official bulletin, the wealthiest 5 percent of the population possess 75 percent of the country's savings whereas 71 percent of the population has only 3 percent.
There is no noticeable improvement in the standard of living in the provinces. High world prices have encouraged investment and produced windfall profits. If the price of oil were to drop, however, today's relative economic stability would be threatened. Grade: C minus. Health: In the post-communist era Russia has witnessed a catastrophic deterioration in public health. According to the World Bank, between and , life expectancy of males fell by seven years to 58 years.
Overall life expectancy in Russia today 65 years ranks it in the world, behind Ukraine and Indonesia. In , overall life expectancy in the Russian part of the Soviet Union was In the period , deaths exceeded births by two million, a demographic catastrophe. Among the reasons for this decline are the failure to finance the public health system and the removal of restrictions on the sale of alcohol. Russia is also faced with a mounting Aids crisis. Figures from the Federal Center for Fighting Aids show the number of registered cases is rising by 30 percent each year.
Despite its large number of well-trained doctors, Russia is not caring for the health of the population. But the scheme had been on the agenda for months. Putin had used the tragedy to justify a change that had been planned well in advance. The government already controls the State Duma and the judiciary. The appointment of governors will help eliminate what little political pluralism still exists.
A new law on foreign non-governmental organizations NGOs or those financed from abroad, perhaps the only bodies still capable of offering political opposition to the regime, was recently passed. Although NGOs have the right to challenge the decision, the vagueness of these criteria means that the government can close them at will. With this degree of control, there are deep misgivings as to whether Putin and his entourage will permit truly free elections in There have already been widespread abuses in provincial elections, including vote stuffing and intimidation.
Russia is becoming steadily more authoritarian again. Grade: D plus. For the most part, Russians are better off. They now have at least a degree of freedom and can make choices about their lives. But there is still a huge gap between the rulers and the ruled and, all too often, the ruled are viewed simply as material for exploitation. Communism conceived of the individual as a cog in a machine, without rights or feelings. Today's Russian rulers frequently see ordinary people in the same way. To complete the journey to democracy, the country needs justice, the rule of law and respect for the individual.
Russia has come a long way but there is still a long way to go. En julio de por primera vez fue anfitriona de la cumbre del G8. Hace poco volvimos a enviarlo para actualizar sus hallazgos. La nueva libertad se refleja de otras maneras. Pero la libertad no es completa. Nota: 9. Los funcionarios declararon cuando en realidad eran 1, No se ha llevado a nadie ante la justicia. Los importadores deben lidiar con las aduanas. El juzgado falla en su favor a cambio de un soborno, y el nuevo accionista audita la empresa.
Ahora la encuentran. Posee castillos en Francia y Escocia, el Club de Futbol Chelsea, en Londres, un Boeing y cuatro yates de lujo, cada uno provisto, se dice, de piscina, helipuerto y minisubmarino. Nota: 7. Pero el proyecto llevaba meses en la agenda. El gobierno ya controla la Duma y el poder judicial. Poco a poco Rusia recae en el autoritarismo. Hoy por lo menos gozan de cierto grado de libertad y pueden tomar decisiones sobre su vida. Imagine someone puts rebar in a fire and makes it redhot, then stabs you with that.
Bam-bam-bam-bambambam- bam-bam-bam. It was loud, repeatedly, and then they sped off. An innocent victim, he was hit nine times. His assailants are facing trial, and he asked that his name not be used. Other gunshot victims have described it as a sharp slap with a stick, or a bee sting or a slight burning. Martin Fackler, a retired military trauma surgeon and expert on wound ballistics, speaking from Gainesville, Fla.
I pushed myself off the dashboard to see what was happening. I saw two quick flashes of light and then I went back down on the dashboard. The bullet leaves the barrel of the gun, spinning around its long axis. The speed of the bullet varies, depending on the gun, and it is this velocity that is a factor in determining the damage to body tissue. Michael Pollanen. The wounding power is determined by velocity, not the mass of the bullet. People can still have ten to 15 more seconds of purposeful action because the brain still has enough oxygen to function. The human body does not get knocked backward.
I had to stop after four steps. I felt the pressure in my lung. Then they came around and shot me in the head. It felt like a piece of steel. But it only grazed the top of my skull, leaving an indent. Sunnybrook sees up to 80 gunshot wounds a year, a number that is steadily rising. In , by comparison, there were The most common cause of death from a gunshot wound is internal bleeding.
I looked at my wounds. The entrance wound was like a little circle, about a half inch wide. The exit wound was like a tear, more than one inch wide, like a half-moon shape. The consequences of a gunshot wound are enormous. The impact on a family is huge. The worst part of my job is to tell a mother and father their year-old son is dead from a gunshot wound.
I was a person with a lot of trust, friendly and outgoing. In there were shootings in Toronto. If a bullet leaves the muzzle of a gun at about 1, feet per second, it may slow down feet per second as it passes through a car windshield. A bullet has to travel between and feet per second to penetrate skin. Often the entry wound is small, round, giving little indication of the wreckage it might leave inside the body. The glass in the passenger window shattered. When they took the bullets out of my left side [two months later], a piece of glass came out with the bullets.
As the bullet leaves the firearm, hot gases, unburned gunpowder and soot go with it, says Pollanen. If fired at contact or close range to the skin, these substances enter the body with the bullet. When the bullets entered, I felt like something was expanding in me. As the bullet tears through tissue, it can become deformed and change its shape, says Pollanen. It can also change direction on rare occasions. As it does so, it starts to divide and tear open tissue, creating a zone of destruction.
With this effect, known as mushrooming, the diameter of the bullet can double in size. As the bullet travels through the body, it creates a zone of injury larger than the actual bullet hole. The force of the bullet causes the bullet hole to temporarily expand outward, known as the cavitation effect, sometimes creating a space as large as an orange. Fue una racha de ruidos explosivos y luego se alejaron a toda velocidad.
En hubo tiroteos en la ciudad de Toronto. Una bala debe viajar a una velocidad de entre 50 y 65 metros por segundo para penetrar en la piel. Si se dispara a quemarropa contra la piel, estas sustancias entran en el cuerpo junto con la bala. Si la bala da en un hueso, puede fracturarlo y formar proyectiles secundarios que se desperdigan dentro del cuerpo. A los cuatro pasos tuve que detenerme. Entonces se me acercaron y me dispararon en la cabeza. La principal causa de muerte por impacto de bala es la hemorragia interna.
Las consecuencias de un disparo son enormes, lo mismo que las repercusiones en la familia. Ya no soy la persona que era. Antes era muy confiado, amigable y extrovertido. Cuando eres negro, hay un estigma en el hecho de recibir un disparo. La gente dice que alguna culpa debes de tener. Ahora no salgo mucho. And one thing I know for sure: Age has nothing to do with friendship. Neither does race. Looking back over my long career as a bluesman, I know that three of my friendships—with guitarists Eric Clapton, Stevie Ray Vaughan, and Jimi Hendrix—stand out for me.
Each of these men has given me so much more than I ever gave them. He saw me in the audience and pointed me out.
After the show, we got up onstage and made some music together. I grew up very, very poor on a plantation in Kilmichael, Mississippi. I knew my mother, but she died when I was nine. Then I lived alone until I was 13 and rejoined my father. I worked for a white family that was very good to me. I milked 20 cows a day. After I finished, I could go to school. I had to walk five miles to the one-room schoolhouse the white kids had buses. I guess you never miss what you never had.
But it all feeds into playing the blues. Eric told the newspapers in England that the one thing he really enjoyed about visiting the U. It was before I ever traveled to Great Britain. Eric appeared on my first music DVD, B. Straight from his tour, he chartered a plane in order to get there one night, though his fingers were sore from playing.
I thought that was tremendous. I loved working with him in the studio; he always had good ideas. In we recorded Riding with the King, which became my first platinum CD and introduced me to a new generation of fans. We won a Grammy for it in , and all I could say to Eric was thanks. No way would it have happened without him. But I did think of Stevie Ray and Jimi as being just as much my kids as my own 15 biological children. Stevie used to come to me just like my sons did and ask about music.
But he and Jimi talked to me about chords and how to make certain sounds on the guitar. Same thing with Stevie. How does it sound? It made me feel good, like a teacher feels when he sees a student doing well. Stevie was very fast on the guitar. When I first got the news on the radio, I heard it was Eric who had died.
Later I found out it was really Stevie. I hurt just as bad. He hung on my every word. He had a thing about him that just made him lovable. As recently as 15 years ago, you would see just little black kids there. It makes me so proud it seems my buttons are gonna pop off my shirt. Like Stevie, the children sit down around me, this old white-haired black guy. You might say I have thousands of children— Eric, Stevie and Jimi have just been the most popular.
One other thing about Eric Clapton and me. I swear a lot. Eric never does. He even opened a rehab center in the Caribbean for folks suffering from addiction. Not only as a musician, but as a man. I just love the guy. King is currently touring throughout Europe and the United States. King second from left with Clapton and Vaughan in ; above, Hendrix in Por B. Y de una cosa estoy seguro: la edad nada tiene que ver con la amistad. La raza tampoco. Eric atrae a la gente, y desde entonces hemos sido grandes amigos.
Nunca hemos hablado de esto, pero creo que congeniamos porque ninguno de los dos tuvo lo que se dice una infancia normal. Pero todo cuenta a la hora de tocar blues. Eso fue antes de mi primer viaje al Reino Unido. Otros invitados no llegaron, pero Eric es un hombre de palabra. Stevie era distinto. Estaba pendiente de mis palabras. Estoy tan orgulloso que siento como si me fueran a estallar los botones de la camisa.
Como yo soy de Mississippi, tengo boca de carretero y digo muchas maldiciones. Lo aprecio con toda el alma. King segundo desde la izquierda con Clapton y Vaughan en ; arriba, Hendrix en Guido Daniele loves a challenge. When the Italian artist was hired by an advertising agency to create body paintings of animals, he took matters into his own hands—or those of his children, to be precise. There's nothing worse than working with a nervous, unfamiliar model whose hands are shaking. The cheetah, Daniele's first painting, is still his favorite.
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Daniele's paintings take an average of three to four hours to complete, although the first time he painted the eagle with outstretched wings it took him ten. The hardest part of his job is watching his creations disappear down the drain after they're photographed. El guepardo, su primer cuadro, sigue siendo su preferido. Email address: genori gmail. Grade average: 9. Honourable Mention at Professional Exam. Loma Hermosa, Mexico City. Alejandro Camacho, alejandro. Mario Sandoval, Tel. Febuary Free-lance copyediting of Octavio Paz.
July Free-lance translation into Spanish of Migra! August Free-lance proofreading of the Spanish translation of Sheldon S. Editor: areina editorialterracota. Luis Rubio, cidacmx gmail. Keywords: Translation from English into Spanish or viceversa, French into Spanish, and Italian into Spanish, of texts on science, literature, the arts. Copy editing in Spanish on the same subjects. Traduzione Italiano-Spagnolo. This profile has received 21 visits in the last month, from a total of 13 visitors.
Profile last updated Sep 15, Such an analysis can reveal the enduring power of the Orientalist legacy, and also the strategies that contemporary authors employ to avoid traditional literary tropes. These authors have made significant contributions to the contemporary literary landscape in Spain and it is imperative that the way Africa figures in their novelistic corpus be critically analyzed. This project will engage with a variety of questions as it seeks to analyze the fate of Orientalism in contemporary Spanish fiction around three distinct but interrelated topics: a the political dimension, b gender issues, and c travel.
These questions, and others like them, have structured my personal approach to these novels as I have read, enjoyed, and analyzed their narratives. Ultimately, I have sought to evaluate the extent to which Saidian Orientalism persists in Spanish literature, and my findings suggest a waning of influence, but also a stubborn persistence of the same.
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This novel reconceptualizes ideas of the geographical fatherland, re- ordering the preferential hierarchy for the European peninsula. The use of each of these traveling archetypes opens for analysis distinct social and cultural representations of difference. These authors represent a diverse selection of voices in contemporary Spanish literary production. Ndongo also represents one of the most prominent Hispano-African voices writing today as an exiled Equato- Guinean author.
It was not an easy process to choose a limited selection of authors and novels for this work. As such, this dissertation does not pretend to be an exhaustive examination of all relevant authors or literary works. This project does hope to highlight some trends within the contemporary Spanish literary landscape, and the authors included here should serve as a useful representative selection for such an ambition. The interest that Spanish authors have in returning to the theme of Africa must be noted.
The recent literary output is staggering. Voyage to the Dream and Nightmare of Morocco] In addition to the works by authors considered in this study, there are a number of other Spanish authors employing and including Africa in their works. This renewed interest is significant, and this study attempts to identify general trends in representative recent works. This essential question serves as the foundation for this work, and, while I will let the chapters speak for themselves, I find that some representations move beyond the limitations of Orientalism, while others continue in its damaging tradition.
If I were unencumbered by the sometimes arbitrary limitations that go into the preparation of a dissertation, limitations of genre, length, time, and—of course—a manageable project, then there is a long list of other potential subjects within the topic of Africa awaiting further examination and analysis.
The preceding paragraph and the following two paragraphs show that there are many recent works of fiction by Spanish authors that deal with Africa. Fortunately, the topic of Africa appears to be growing in popularity and interest from both the Spanish reading public and from the current crop of authors. It is not limited to Spanish production either. The canon of literature by Equatorial Guinean authors is also growing quickly, and receiving significant critical attention. There is also a small yet active group of Saharawi poets and writers living in Madrid that are drawing attention to the political issues that face the Saharawi populace as they continue to hope for an eventual return to the territory that is currently occupied by Morocco.
The primary generic focus of these authors is poetry, with an emphasis also on maintaining traditional Saharawi oral stories, but the past few years have offered much hope for a growth in production of literature in Spanish by Saharawi authors. And despite a declining rate in the use of Spanish within Morocco Boutakka , there is, perhaps surprisingly, a growing number of works by Moroccan authors in Spanish. Their works dealing with Africa reflect a return to themes that Spanish authors have entertained for centuries; however their position at the threshold of the twenty-first century demands critical evaluation of their treatment of such themes as they approach Africa as a literary topic from a post-colonial perspective.
My investigation incoporates a combination of critical perspectives, outlined above, that contribute to an understanding of how contemporary Spanish authors approach Africa in ways that either perpetuate or surpass historical Orientalist discourses. By analyzing the status and fate of the Orientalist discourse as found in fictional works by contemporary Spanish authors, this work will contribute to the other studies already mentioned that have dealt with similar issues. My examination of the Orientalist discourse in the novel is aligned with a renewed critical interest in this theoretical field but, as of yet, there have been few specific works that examines the fate of Orientalism in the contemporary Spanish novel.
Through my work, I hope to bring attention to shifts of representation in the contemporary Spanish novel that will demonstrate the critical value of these novels while drawing attention to the contributions these authors have made to the Spanish literary field and more specifically how, in many instances, they have contributed to overturning and reevaluating long-held Orientalist stereotypes.
Spain and France recognized Moroccan independence and returned their protectorates in minus the enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Ifni ; Equatorial Guinea was granted independence in ; Ifni was returned to Morocco in , and Spain withdrew from the Spanish Sahara in In the few decades between the Spanish Civil War and the relinquishment of the colonies, there was significant emigration from Spain to Africa. By that number had risen to 20, In Equatorial Guinea the European population grew from 3, in to 9, in These seventy-five years represent, perhaps, the most sustained and frenetic period of Spanish interest in the African continent.
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In the period immediately following this defeat, Spain reevaluated its relationship with Africa and redoubled its focus and efforts on the continent. Shortly after the turn of the twentieth century, Spain rapidly began the expansion of its African empire;34 however, in less than seventy years Spain would also experience the ultimate disintegration of that hope-for African empire. Since contemporary authors have focused instead on Spain- Africa interactions in the twentieth century, I do not include a significant focus on this time period.
For information on the Scramble for Africa, see Chamberlain. The rich and abundant writings on Africa from the early nineteenth century to the early twenty-first century chart an evolution in the portrayal of the cultures of North Africa, cultures that are clearly distinct from the Iberian ones. Spain allowed little to no information about Western Sahara to appear in the press during its rule of the territory Hodges , Not only have these writers received acclaim for their works, but these three novels serve as valuable texts because they are narratives that reflect significant historical interactions between Spain and Africa in the past century.
Spain fought for territory in Morocco, maintained a significant colonial presence, and lost its territories all within the boundaries of the century. An examination of these novels will consider how these interactions continue to resonate in contemporary Spanish literature. Many of the conclusions that I reach in my analysis of these novels can be transposed also to Equatorial Guinea, and, where appropriate, I will highlight such possible comparisons. Specific to this chapter is my analysis of how methods of engagement with the Other affect literary representation.
Does a war novel reflect the African Other in distinct ways from a novel about the quotidian realities of the civilian in the protectorate? This chapter will serve to support the thesis of this dissertation, that contemporary authors are writing Africa and the African Others through methods that avoid the pitfalls of historic, Orientalist discourse. The return to the past for literary inspiration highlights their engagement with the historical realities and the attempt to re- present these realities within contemporary narration. Each of these novels contributes a unique viewpoint as I will examine the dynamics of aggressive interaction, peaceful coexistence, and the intense yet somewhat peaceful negotiations of diplomacy and how these authors narrate the Other within these contexts.
These representations are especially significant in the settings of war or diplomacy where distinctions of Same and Other and their confrontation are an essential element of the interaction. Together, these three engagements will offer considerations of the most emblematic of the encounters between cultures. These encounters function on a macro, intercultural level; war, diplomacy, and colonization are encounters or clashes between cultures. In my examination of archetypes of travel in Chapter Four, I emphasize the micro, interpersonal encounter. And finally, I find very helpful James C.
Since then he has published over fifteen novels that have earned him several prizes. He was a finalist for the Premio Nadal with La flaqueza del bolchevique [The Weakness of the Bolshevik] , and he won the award for El alquimista impaciente [The Impacient Alchemist] in La flaqueza del bolchevique was made into a movie in His two fictional works, El nombre de los nuestros and Carta blanca take place in the midst of the Rif War Our history has been a common one in many moments, sometimes in a tragic form.
In one of these painful episodes, the war of , one of my grandfathers participated For this reason, and because I also have Moroccan family members, I have not been able to look to the south with indifference. The war setting of the novel, developing entirely on the front lines of active battle, highlights a bellicose engagement with Moroccans. The Other is not only ethnically Other but also an enemy or fellow soldier.
The umbrella term Other is nuanced into either a threatening aggresor or a collaborative companion, reducing emphasis on cultural Otherness to dynamics of hostility and friendship. Each of these authors engage with the question of alterity and the 40 These collaborative companions were referred to as Harka, a term for indigenous Moroccan troops under European command, specifically used by the Spanish in the African campaigns Wikipedia. Irrespective of race or culture, all participants in the war front are exposed to the very real possibility of death and are united in their common mortality.
Symmetrically opposed — rather than asymmetrically approaching — the enemy departs and vanishes, which is to say that the enemy also remains as departing and vanishing. The space within which this movement takes place is defined by Levinas as the space of the political, as the space of war. Trajectories of parallel movement mark the relationship between opposing forces;43 the mirroring confrontation and the dynamic instability of the war front redefine interaction with opposing forces.
It is also the plurality of the opposition; armies or forces engage one another. The enemy may be an Other, culturally, ethnically or otherwise, but the unique dynamics present on the battlefield — the loss of individuality, direct confrontation, and the suspension of law — are significant enough to confer extra signification upon the Other. The distinction is important: the enemy may be Other, but the Other is not necessarily an enemy.
In tracing the evolution of the treatment of the Other, Rueda also examines the progress made between the first War of Africa and the Rif War. Enmity has discursive specificity — military, political and even theological — in the context of war literature. For Silva, war does dehumanize, but this dehumanization is not limited to the Other; each of the opposing sides is susceptible. The plot of El nombre de los nuestros develops within the intense fighting of June and July, in northern Morocco, specifically the military positions of Sidi Dris, Talilit and Afrau. The novel reaches its climax as the Spanish troops are forced to retreat, with the Harka brutally massacring many and taking some captive as prisoners of war.
This decisive battle put an end to the Rif War. Yet their ideological or background differences are minimalized as they face the common enemy — the Riffian Harka. Their singular recognition is not necessarily an oversight, or a discursive erasure of the cultural Other, since within El nombre de los nuestros individual identity is only afforded to a select few characters.
This supports an analysis of the novel as operating in the indifferent space of war — the war front erases individuality as two opposing sides face off, and difference is subsumed within the organization engaged in conflict. Other characters come and go but function mostly as secondary, undeveloped actors within the plot. Even though ethnic alterity is not emphasized, as fighting intensifies it is acknowledged as a concern. The contingent cooperation between the Spanish soldiers and the indigenous police force worries the Spanish soldiers when they are forced to rely on their Moroccan counterparts.
Possible implications include the recognition of deep-seated mistrust of the cultural Other, even when fighting on the same side, or also the more subtle distinction of Hassan as Other as distinguishing him from the enemy. Hassan is an individual who has voice and agency; Molina offers him a choice and he makes the perilous decision to stay and fight. Hassan is merely Other, while the indistinct Harka are the Enemy. A third possibility is the 49 [What are you all going to do, Hassan?
A general simplification of their uses is that ser represents an intrinsic condition or defining, while estar is used for situational states. In some of them it was only this, an error, but in others it hid a probable secondary meaning. As Levinas articulates, they are not enemies, and not necessarily complements, but rather they mutually recognize personal agency. Ethnically the Same as the indigenous police, the Harka are ideologically Other. The Harka are not described with any individuality; they are referred to consistently in the collective.
This renders their individuality — their personal humanity 54 [The corporal observed him with his eyes wide open. He had not interacted much with Molina but the sergeant had always been respectful with him. It is sinister and stealthy. The stealth and surprise keep the Spanish forces on the run and on the defensive, never able to effectively hold back an attack, to their ultimate defeat and capture.
In the first African War, the triunfalist spirit endures in victory, and conversely, in the Rif War the aura of the traumatic defeat at Annual casts a threatening pall over the tone. In this sense, the threatening Enemy is not only psychically threatening but also strategically threatening in the historical context of El nombre de los nuestros. I know that I am never going to return to my village. He is able to see her eyes. The invisible enemy as a threatening monster is reinforced by his reflection, and the personal encounter here only highlights the indifference of which Levinas speaks Anidjar 5.
This woman is not an Other, she is an enemy. For Amador and the readers, her angry reaction to the captured Spanish soldier personifies and renders visible the formerly indistinct enemy. That is, what would be an Other in different contexts, is converted into a threatening force that is capable of overwhelming the Western, modern military machine within the theater of war.
Now the invisible monster had imposed its presence, and between all of the unprecedented signs from which he had to choose, the corporal felt that the Harka was this woman that had stripped him of his military stripes and who ridiculed him with the insolence of her ardent black eyes. Furthermore, upon coming face to face with an individual enemy, Amador recognizes the distinctly human emotion of insolence and disdain, affirming the positional superiority of the Harka in their victory. He is with those over there facing us. He suggested that it was more valuable to consider the implications of defeat than to re-visit scenes of national conquest.
This bravery is not limited to those at Afrau. The implication is that the indigenous police force is not only more loyal than the Spanish soldiers, they are also more honorable for keeping their word when they have less of a moral stake in the outcome. There are brave Spanish soldiers. Sergeant Molina, Lieutenant Veiga, and Amador are each portrayed as honorable and brave men. Hassan, the corporal, remained at the foot of the parapet, despite having been shot in the shoulder.
It overturns the cultural hierarchy upon which Orientalist discourse depends. By recognizing individual bravery among examples both Spanish and Moroccan, Silva also avoids the trap of over-idealizing the Other. The bravery that he highlights among the indigenous police force is not limited to them and neither is it accorded to them because of their ethnicity; it is a quality that is available to any character, regardless of race, thereby emphasizing it as a personal quality rather than as a cultural one.
As Silva undermines the colonizing mantra of moral superiority, he also realigns the demarcations of Same and Other. Same and Other are reconstructed as class distinctions, not racial ones. Silva reduces war to an economic transaction, since the wealthy and powerful can literally purchase others to take their stead. With this emphasis, the hierarchy of power is reoriented from a cultural order to a socio-economic one.
That is, as examined above, the cultural Other is a powerful and threatening force, able to menace the Spanish forces; the marginalized Other is a social class that transcends cultural boundaries. Silva establishes this alignment in two specific ways: first, by examining the class distinctions at work in the Spanish army, and second, by comparing the marginalized Spanish soldiers with their Moroccan counterparts.
The practice of purchasing a sustituto67 permeates the Spanish military forces. In it was estimated that the Spanish government earned upwards of 15 million pesetas from this official practice. When organizing a group of soldiers for an excursion, he discovers that certain soldiers are paying other soldiers to volunteer in their place. Se puede comprar un abrigo o se pueden comprar unos zapatos. Pero querer comprar el dolor de una familia es una indignidad. But Molina indignantly refused the favor.
No one was going to die in his place for some change. In Africa, each bullet has a name, and no bullet will make a mistake But you, those that pay, you must be rich, and those, those who take your peseta, are poor… What I want to say is that the name of the bullet cannot be bought or sold, because it will find whom it has to find and no one will carry the misfortune of another. You can buy a jacket or you can buy some shoes.
But to want to buy the pain of a family is an indignity. The human market exists to offer the financially able the opportunity to opt-out — a system in which Molina refuses to participate from the start — converts the soldiers into commodities and in the process alienates them from themselves. Molina uncovers the exploitative nature of this system by emphasizing the equal personal value of the individual. Molina addresses the fetishism of the commodity that is occurring on the personal, human level in the war scenario. The soldiers are reminded that they are humans, not commodities to be bought and sold.
This emphasis on the individual as opposed to the assumed market value of the human-as-commodity is not limited to the Spanish. Silva does not stop at individualizing 72 As described by Marx, The power of his text, and the most significant rejection of Orientalist discourse, lies in the humanization of the enemy also. Hasta los moros a los que matamos, si lo miras, son los nuestros.
Nosotros somos como ellos: corremos, nos arrastramos, pasamos miedo y nunca nos ayuda nadie. Van a olvidar que murieron, y que chillaron, y que se desangraron encima de esta tierra. Even the Moors that we kill, if you look at it, they are ours. We are like them: we run, we crawl, we feel fear and no one ever helps us. For this we have to remember them forever, for our dead; we, Amador, because everyone else is going to forget it. They will forget that they died, and that they screamed, and that they lost their blood over this land.
Even if you never return to Africa. And yet, Molina expands this individuality to a plural and possessive communality. Not only is there a nosotros but it is a personal nuestro — and those that comprise this intimate group are the poor and disenfranchised, and not limited to the ethnic Same, but extended to the enemy also. Silva emphasizes that the true battle is class warfare. The generals and commanders make their choices distanced from the physical land they seek to dominate, aboard the battleship Laya offshore in the Mediterranean, or from Madrid.
Silva emphasizes the uni-directional flow of power, from distanced officers and politicians to disenfranchised soldiers, in the moments leading up to the retreat. The soldiers are unable to communicate with the Laya, and vice versa, by radio or signs because both are using different codes that neither can understand , Silva subtly inserts a 74 [four sons of bitches that are now so comfortable in Madrid. For Silva, Same and Other are broader, relational terms, better constructed in socio-political or economic structures than in genetic ones.
Six years after his conversation with Amador in Melilla, the war is concluded with a Spanish victory The Spanish king visits the infamous bay where the soldiers retreated. He offers to the African evenings a pacifying power that surges as a nostalgic memory. Ultimately, he moves from scenery to former 77 [That man, and those like him, would continue commanding other men like Molina to fight for a cause, whichever, and they would lament defeat and celebrate victory, but regardless of the result, they would never understand.
The enemy is indeed a spectral presence that haunts, as Rueda suggests. The specter that haunts is not only that of the enemy Harka, but of the priviliged class that sends the soldier to war. The preconceived and traditional established enemy is 79 [Molina thought one more time about the Harka. He felt its breath, suffocating through the barrier of the mountains; its threat, invisible like the impetus that moved all beings to live and to die.
And then he knew that for him, just like for all of those he had met, the Harka would never cease to exist. As Said suggests that Orientalist discourse is a tool of the politically powerful to achieve its own ends, Silva deconstructs that ideological paradigm to uncover the underlying dynamics at work. Conceptualizations of Same and Other cannot be taken at face value as Silva reconstitutes understandings of Us versus Them.
This redefinition serves to powerfully destabilize official Orientalist discourse that would write Africa and the African as a distinct Other and a potential enemy. A unified conceptualization of a cultural Same is also fractured in this recapitulation; los nuestros — ours — becomes an identification that transcends cultural identity, and one that is not predicated on cultural uniformity.
The new lines of belonging affirm a common humanity that deemphasizes phenotypical difference. Denominators such as European, Spanish, or African neither assume nor preclude individual belonging. Markers of difference instead emphasize social and economic inequality as the true forces that divide. She currently resides and writes in Alicante.
Her writing has been positively received, and her work is the topic of a book and several articles by the Moroccan Hispanist Mohamed Abrighach. What uneasiness! I felt my true vocation in the north of Africa, particularly in Morocco.
Actividades | consonni
It contains, above all, a true poetics of the two shores, that is, it is a kind of poetry of diversity through which the crossed and common characteristics of the Mare Nostrum are exalted. The term also contains the connotation of a hybridized Castillian with Arabic characteristics. The text offers very few references to specific dates or events that could contextualize the plot within a specific year or years.
The provision of specific dates is ultimately unnecessary as the plot is not anchored to synchronic moments, but rather to the span of time encompassing the Spanish Protectorate in Morocco,87 up to its end in They are going to succeed in getting us lost with so many name changes! This general time frame of two decades coincides with the cosmopolitan reality in which the expatriates move and go about their daily lives, and also aligns with the few specific dates that are mentioned in the text.
She had lost count Mechbal , etc. The novel is narrated primarily in the third person, but often slips into a free indirect speech narration. The narrative is not plot driven, but rather presents a series of individual stories that paint a picture of various inhabitants of the Moroccan Protectorate. As a whole, the cast of characters represents the variety of personages that comprise the cosmopolitan centers of mid-century Morocco. It is true that they represent a predominantly privileged class, and the politically or economically marginalized portion of Moroccan society is not given much diegetic consideration, but within this substrate the characters do also represent a spectrum of privilege and wealth.
Some are political exiles while others are political elite, and some Moroccans and Spaniards are financially well off, while others are not. The Other within the novel receives a textured and nuanced representation. As noted above, the text is filled with characters from varied backgrounds. Moreover, the narration shifts between Spanish, French, Arabic, and even occasionally English.
The narration is primarily in Spanish — such that one can reasonably follow the narrative without significant knowledge of French, Arabic, or English — but slips into the other languages without warning and without translation. Narration remains in Spanish, but dialog contains frequent multilingual expressions. Just as the language shifts, so does the narrative viewpoint. That is, even though Spanish is the language of the text, other linguistic realities of the plot are offered narrative space and consideration.
The linguistic hybridity of the Moroccan Protectorate is recognized and represented in this narration. In similar fashion, the shifting narrative viewpoint allows multiple voices the opportunity for consideration and expression. The text effectively recreates a space of transculturation that goes beyond simplistic Orientalist portrayals. Instead it depends largely on personal, intimate story- lines for plot development, rather than adrenaline-fueled action or mystery. These contact zones are not the sites of active conquest and cultural inequality, but rather ones of interpersonal, empathetic exchange.
Even while the narrative avoids cultural hierarchy and actively decries instances of racial denigration, the contact zones that it offers are spaces of the elite and the colonial. The expatriates may be beneficent and multicultural, but they are colonial immigrants, congregating at embassy functions or colonial social clubs. As the text gives voice to the linguistic and cultural Other, it largely ignores the economically and politically marginalized Other.
The historical context is that of the active European colonialism of Morocco, and the characters that populate the pages are the privileged class of the colony. She does not write the indigenous Morocco, or the culturally Other Moroccan, instead she focuses her narrative on the social space that was unique to the Protectorates.
From the s to the s the geopolitical image of a Euro- African Spain was formulated in different ways. The basic argument was that there is a spatial continuity from the Pyrenees in the north to the Atlas in the south. There would be two Spains: one peninsular in the European continent and one Transfetana or Tingitana in the African continent. So the Spanish national destiny would be to achieve the unity of both Spains. Thus the incorporation of colonies in Northwest Africa or the 98 [de-dramatizes the phenomenon perhaps because Spanish emigration to North Africa was not as tragic as the contemporary Moroccan voyage in patera.
This consideration does not resolve any issues, but rather serves to highlight the complex ideologies, cultures, and personages that interacted in these cosmopolitan contact zones. Morocco is her home and Spain represents for her a strange and unknown place; she is comfortable maneuvering the culturally and linguistically heterogeneous world of the Moroccan Protectorate. See Flores Morales for a collection of ideological statements by prominent Spanish thinkers and politicians regarding Africa.
Todo va a seguir igualito, no lo dudes. Listen, do you hear the sound of the ocean? Well, there it will continue, day and night, and the geraniums and the gladiolas in the garden will contiue flowering while someone waters them. The world is not going to fall to pieces because you leave, you can be sure of that, and noone is going to die for anyone either Why do I dream such strange things? And she let loose with numerous details that configured the basis of her happiness; with excitement, she emphasized the virtues of that loving and kind man.
This attitude infuriated her. But that also happened to me before I came! She had been there too long not to know them; they could have their defects, but also their virtues just like the rest of the mortals. Ibn Amira went to Tunisia in exile. See Lachica. With few substantial changes, a similar scene can be imagined occurring in Valencia in the early thirteenth century.
I had to come here to understand that those poets so loved my land. Well, yes, it was Jaume the Conqueror. What an amazing coincidence! See Harvey for more information on James I. It would never have occurred to her to think that those verses had been inspired by Valencia, her own land, how great was her ignorance! She realizes that her exile is no different from the one experienced by the Moors who were expelled from Spain by the Catholic Kings.
From the peak of Oukaimeden a muezzin led the call to prayer. Jaume el Conqueridor successfully wrested the Kingdom of Valencia from Moorish control in the thirteenth century. See Harvey. Even with this final and emphatic re-conceptualization of Same and Other, phrases or lines remain in the narration that discomfort or appear out of place. And when she chides Mme. The reader understands that she cares deeply about her home in Morocco and those with whom she interacts; her offensive utterances represent a legacy of expression that her experiences in the Protectorate belie.
What propels the story are the emotional ties and the affection that interpersonal contact provides. Ties between individuals — or between individuals and places — are emotional, not cultural. An elemental right in disuse? A verdict for our legal reason? Let me scream: I want to be myself! Como me otorga esa carta magna. Just like this magna carta grants me. He has since continued to Bahia Awah is a Saharawi poet and author currently living in Madrid. Mayrata worked in Paris as a reporter and translator and, in addition to his fiction and poetry, also has several non- fiction books and a collection of his literary articles titled El ojo de la arbitrariedad [The Eye of Arbitrariness] Mayrata has received some recognition throughout his career.
His early poetry appears in an anthology collected by Vicente Aleixandre, Espejo del amor y de la muerte [Mirror of Love and of Death] His critical writing on literature and art has been collected in various works and published in journals also. El imperio desierto will serve as the central text for this analysis and it is worth noting that it is a work of fiction that contains significant autobiographical elements. Unfortunately, these latter texts will need to be explored elsewhere, and I have chosen to focus on El imperio desierto here as it directly confronts the issue of Western Sahara and its decolonization.
El imperio desierto ultimately emphasizes that a culture that does not conform to Western standards of legibility is doomed to marginalization, as implied by the double entendre of the title as either The Desert Empire or The Deserted Empire. El imperio desierto occurs over the final year of the Spanish Sahara colony. The Spanish Sahara was governed as a Spanish territory from to , notably as a separate and distinct territory from the Spanish Protectorate of Morocco.
As the novel opens, Spain is initializing the process of decolonization and handing autonomy over to the Saharawi populace, due to international pressure. As a brief historical context, the This was very apparent as I met with members of the Saharawi community in Madrid in the summer of , specifically in my conversations with the author Bahia Awah and the poet Ebnu.
Spain took the case to the International Court of Justice, which ruled in favor of the potential Saharawi state. Spain was unwilling to become involved in a potentially large-scale conflict due to the failing health of Franco, among other reasons, and so offered little resistance to the pacific occupation of the territory. Spain withdrew shortly thereafter, leaving the territory under internationally contested Moroccan control. The Saharawi nationalists, united under the Frente Polisario were forced to retreat to refugee camps in Tindouf, Algeria, where they continue to subsist, seeking international recognition and restoration.
A young anthropologist, Ignacio Aguirre, is hired to go to the territory and to prepare a history textbook of the Saharawi people for use in the indigenous schools that will come with the anticipated independence. The territory is administered under strict military rule, even as the process is underway for Saharawi independence in the very near future. Ignacio and his Saharawi collaborators must negotiate diplomatic avenues of official recognition and documentation, at times making concessions to the Western conceptions of validity and bureacracy, all the while working towards an anticipated independence.
The premise of national self-determination is based upon a unique, historical Saharawi identity that ethnically separates the indigenous inhabitants of the territory from their Moroccan and Mauritian neighbors.
Scott explains the concept of legibility within diplomacy as one emerging as a central problem in statecraft. The premodern state was, in many crucial respects, partially blind; it knew precious little about its subjects, their wealth, their landholdings and yields, their location, their very identity.
Organization and standardization effectively render a state legible. This theorization is pertinent to the Saharawi example in El imperio desierto in that the Saharawi are only partially sedentarized. The infrastructure present in the Spanish Sahara colony is a Spanish infrastructure, governed by Spaniards. One could potentially use other synonyms such as distinguishable, recognizable, or identifiable in their stead.
Another important hurdle for the Saharawi of El imperio desierto is their historical reliance on the oral transmission of history. The Saharawi cultural history is neither textually documented nor proximately aggregated. Prior to the Spanish decolonization of the territory, the Saharawi had relied on oral transmission of their history, and the documents that were available were dispersed throughout the families of the territory, uncataloged and unorganized.
To accomplish this task, Ignacio forms a team composed of Saharawi men who help him to gather scarce historical documents from families and to document family histories. Ignacio and his colleagues also encounter reluctance from the local Saharawi populace who are hesitant to entrust their important documents to a cultural outsider. The novel is split into five sections, of which Ignacio Aguirre is the primary focus. The first section begins in Madrid with Ignacio as a recently graduated anthropology student; he is contacted by the Spanish government and asked to undertake this project in the Saharan territory.
He is eventually released and returns to Madrid to pass along his findings to the government. The effect of this omission within the text is one of general culpability upon all branches of the Spanish government, instead of any singular agency. He is injured in a bomb blast and later put on a plane out of the country at which point the novel ends. El imperio desierto ultimately humanizes the Saharawi Other and sympathizes with this Other that is condemned to operate within a cultural paradigm that is not their own.
In my analysis of this book, I focus on three ways in which Mayrata represents the Saharawi Other that undermine and depart from traditional Orientalist discourse. European Colonial Powers, the praxis of diplomacy, and archival of knowledge dominates all interactions; 2 the ways in which Mayrata humanizes the Saharawi and consciously avoids idolizing his cultural Other, and 3 the narrative attention to the cultural differences that disadvantage the Saharawi in a world that operates according to the Western paradigm.
Ya sabes, por las presiones de la ONU. Una historia del territorio para uso de los nuevos saharianos. The Saharawi are not offered the opportunity to write their own history. Ignacio is privileged over potential Saharawi authors for his status as a Westerner, despite his uninspiring credentials. You know, because of UN pressure. In an independent country they have to study their own history in the schools.
And that is what they want you to do. A history of the territory for the new Saharans. From prehistory What begins as an educational goal for his project — to create a history textbook for use in independent Saharawi schools — becomes a much higher- stakes game as Morocco and Mauritania threaten invasion and contest the presumed independence of the territory. Ignacio, therefore, becomes an official representative for the Saharawi before the International Court of Justice and the wider, Western diplomatic community.
His position as such highlights the fact that the Saharawi of the novel do not have their own voice; they must find help through their paternalistic colonizers who will accompany them on the pathway to self-determination. Piense que la imprenta ha sido introducida recientemente en el territorio. Naturalmente, carece de archivos organizados y de bibliotecas. Think about the fact that the printed word has only been introduced recently in the territory.
Naturally, they lack organized archives and libraries. Little has been written about this zone of the desert. Tiene que tener un nombre. Todas estas cosas tienen su importancia. In between the lines of this passage is the possibility of a third interpretation: that the Saharawi are not recognized because their societal structures do not conform to legible Western paradigms. Who could stop you? Ask, go ahead and ask in this entire building who could tell you one single word about the history of the territory!
You have to have a title. We have named you Director of the Commission. All of these things have their importance. En eso consiste nuestra oportunidad, precisamente. Not only does neither he nor the Fourth International have any information about what the actual situation is in the Spanish Sahara much less that there already exists an [he gave himself over passionately to politics. His militance in the Communist Federation Are they pro-Algerian? And the Fourth International supports them?
They are very far from our positions. But there is not any other organized group in the territory. I suppose that this will be one of those movements for national liberation somewhat vague and confused, that is made up of a little bit of everything. In this is our opportunity, precisely. You understand? Estoy seguro de ello. With this scene, Mayrata sidesteps specific political accusations against the left or right, instead insinuating that neither side is without blame.
If we are able to organize an armed movement in that colony, it would have a propagandistic effect, here, in Spain. We would no longer be a minority group in the group of leftist organizations. I am sure of it. Pero ni siquiera estoy seguro de que el vuestro sea el mejor modo de hacerlo. Mayrata subtly recognizes the cultural discourse that privileges the West over its Other, regardless of political orientation. Said 40 In the case of the Saharawi and the Spanish Sahara, there is very little knowledge that the Spanish colonizers have gathered or cared to gather.
Ignacio shrugged his shoulders. He finds comparisons between Spain and the Saharawi without waxing nostalgic. You could still see ancestral forms of living, ones that were reduced to memory in the rest of Europe. Then she would slowly repeate the words that she had just heard and she deposited them in what was without doubt her greatest treasure: her memory. Memory is not valued as a legitimate or a legible documentation source for international mediation purposes. La de los hombres del fusil y la de las gentes de libros. La de la sangre hirviente de los brazos y la de la sangre calma de los corazones.
Nosotros la conocemos, porque la hemos escuchado de los labios de nuestros padres y abuelos. Emphasis mine, Ignacio shares an appreciation for the oral tradition from his own grandmother. That is, the written word is at minimum a marked improvement upon the purely oral communicative format. This man that you see here has come to write our history. The history of the men of guns and the history of the people of books. The history of the boiling blood of the arms and the history of the calm blood of the hearts.
We know this history, because we have heard it on the lips of our fathers and our grandfathers. But there are many peoples that do not know who the Saharawi are, how they have lived up to now and the things they have done. These peoples have disdain for us because of their history. When he writes the truth, the whisper of the voice of our ancestors will extend throughout the world like the wind and noone will doubt that we must be an independent nation While this documentary format is not traditionally valued by the Saharawi, Fadel recognizes that they must employ the written word to express the value of their oral history to the West.
Ignacio quickly proves himself able to manipulate written language in an effective manner. Basiri was the original founder of the Frente Polisario; he was detained four years earlier — in — by the Spanish legion and no one knows where he is kept or if he is still alive. Ultimately, the Saharawi are presented as flexible and capable individuals who value their oral tradition but understand the need to cater to the Western values of documentation.
It is the West that is unable to understand the African Other or cultural values and conceptualizations that differ from the Western paradigm. While this could be interpreted as Europe articulating the Orient Said 57 , forcing the African Other to conform to standards and practices that are defined by the West, Mayrata instead presents [the Saharawi venerates words and gives them more value than any other precious object. The cruelty of colonialism is an obvious component of the Spanish control of the territory. However, the Saharawi independence movement is not without its own brutality.
At one point, Ignacio is clandestinely taken to meet with Buhe and other members of the Polisario. In a gruesome [The desert is another planet. The cold stoicism of Buhe and his comrades stuns Ignacio. Manuela is studying anthropology in London and attends a conference. She narrates: Por fin, a las 8.
Me chocaron sus atuendos multicolores entre los que menudeaban las barretinas catalanas, las chilabas, los peinados estilo Nefertiti, los ponchos andinos, las guayaberas, los aros en la nariz, la henna, los turbantes. What is implied is that narrative exaggerations are often employed for their affective power with the reader. Ultimately, the nota bene N. Mayrata also tempers the occasional romantic tendencies of Ignacio by contrasting him with his friend Jaime. When Ignacio returns to Madrid to present his work to the government officials, he engages in a lengthy conversation with Jaime.
Jaime is brutal in his pragmatism, suggesting that the Saharan territory should be handed over to Morocco for control because it contains few resources that would allow it to be a viable independent nation. Jaime warns [Finally, at they began the announced conference. The public was the cream of the crop of British anthropology.
Their multicolor outfits shocked me and among those that wandered about were Catalan barretinas, chilabas, Nefertiti styled hairdos, Andean ponchos, guayaberas, rings in the nose, henna, turbans. Such varied outfits contrasted with the sober grey suit and the red tie of the speaker, a Ugandan professor of Anthropology, a black man, who had arrived punctually [at ] but who had been kept silent up until this hour. But I know that you like exaggerations. You know that a landscape is a historical framework This contrast emphasizes the difficulty of objective narration, admitting the possible faults of a Western author attempting to represent his African Other, while the text is literally about a Westerner writing the history of his African Other.
The Other may be different, but that difference should not serve as an impediment to mutual appreciation. As a final point, Mayrata emphasizes the cultural differences that disadvantage the Saharawi in a world that operates within the Western paradigm.
The Saharawi preference for the oral tradition over the written one also marginalizes their voice on the international stage. In addition, the very idea of what constitutes a society, a state, is conceptually different for the Saharawi. I refer specifically [Only when you are able to enter into a relationship with its inhabitants, does the desert stop being an inhospitable, inhuman place, and converts into the land of some men who, thanks to an adequate culture, have made it miraculously habitable.
Casi un espejismo. In the Saharan zone, dominated by your compatriots there has never been a city raised. With the exception of Smara. And this dream had to wait until the nineteenth century to become a reality.
Similar authors to follow
The cities are actually a colonial creation. Almost a mirage. An illusion sustained by the motherland. But for a European, the absence of signs of the State provokes a sentiment of strangeness and neglect much more acute than that of the absence of vegetation. By implication, the Western models of state infrastructure and organization exclude other historical varieties that should be just as valid, if not more so because they have an earlier historical precedence.
This self-reflexive process admits its own flaws and values the differences of the Other it attempts to represent, forcefully rejecting facile stereotypes or Orientalist discourse. The dreams of the Saharawi are ultimately deferred as Hassan II of Morocco organizes the Green March and effective takeover of the territory while the Spanish simultaneously abandon the Saharawi to fate.
In the text and in history, many Saharawi fled to the refugee camps in Algeria to continue their fight for recognition, a fight which continues to this day — over thirty years later. Secondly, it serves as a reminder that, even though cultural differences abound, there is a common humanity that [the stone tunic with which to cover a body that already existed.
I think that I will never forget the time that we spent together, when we the Saharawi could still dream about behaving like human beings. He values the difference of his African Other, humanizes this Other, but ultimately also erodes his own ability to objectively represent this Other. The narrative humility of Mayrata attests to an attempt not to privilege the West over its African Other, but neither does he fall into the trap of over-idealizing the African Other. Instead it hopes to achieve a vision of coexisting, equally valued differences, and in this sense is a poweful counter-Orientalist work of fiction.